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Sunday, 14 April 2013 09:35

History of the Arctic: Facts and Fallacies

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It seems that the epoch of geographical opening is the remote past. However still there lives the generation studying at school geography on cards, differing from the present. For example, island of October revolution for the first time have plotted only in the early thirties of the XX-th century. Happens so because it is in Arctic regions - the country of riddles and polar bears. Here courage of trailblazers, ridiculous errors, infinite natural riches and a big-times politics were weaved into a ball.


Certainly, in Arctic regions were interested during immemorial times. One of the first images on a card, belongs to Merkatoru. The great Flemish cartographer living in ХVIвеке, has drawn continent which cut on the parts of the river following from a closed sea around the North Pole instead of Arctic ocean. Instead of a continuous ice cover plains and mountain chains are represented. Whether those ridges, which now at an ocean floor? And whether is it is the disappeared country Atlantis which is searched by scientists and adventurers, but, alas, unsuccessfully? It is known only that Merkator in the works used any ancient sketches. There can be cards of inhabitants of Atlantis? However, most likely, the represented continent - simply imagination. Who investigated Arctic regions seriously, and whose geographical opening can be trusted? Strangely enough, Viking Eric Ryzhy (it Ejrik Raudi and Eric "Red" Torvaldson) was one of the first known researchers of Arctic regions. Approximately in 980 year Red has been sentenced to three-year exile from Iceland for murder of the neighbour.

Anyway, it and its companions managed to open Greenland and to base there a colony. Opening it, as well as many other things, relative - scientists have found out on island and more ancient settlements. Besides in a fair weather from mountains of Iceland on horizon the earth is visible, means, some inhabitants and knew earlier about existence of Greenland. To Vikings it was possible to make on the fragile little crafts huge expeditions. Scientists consider that they have visited America long before Columbus. As swimmings were very long, and refrigerators yet have not invented, there was a problem of storage of food stocks. There is an opinion that Vikings took with themselves intoxicated drinks as spirit containing in them killed microbes, usual water spoilt and became in due course hazardous to health. Whether so was actually, to tell difficultly. Vikings ate meat of sharks which long remains. It is dried on the sun and, probably, partially begins to rot, but remains rather edible. In some countries of Northern Europe to visitors offer meat of a shark under the recipe of Vikings as an exotic dish. The author of these lines could try - muck rare. In Iceland even during those far times carefully described all events - made sagas which are the most valuable historical documents. In Russia such tradition was not. Therefore names of pioneers have not remained. The history of New Land is indicative. There is data that in XI-XII centuries she was visited repeatedly by the Novgorod merchants.

The West European researchers have appeared in this area only in XVIвеке. In 1553 it there was Hugh Uillobi, and in 1596 Willem Barents has rounded northern extremity of New Land and remained on wintering at east coast. In spite of the fact that Russian already happened on these islands, officially the first Russian researcher of New Land Feodor Rozmyslov who has visited there in 1768-1769 is considered. Let's talk more in detail about Englishman Hugh Uillobi. It in May, 1553 was sent in travel by king Edward VI. Naturally, this event, unlike amateur travel of Russian merchants, was appropriate amount задокументировано. In May, 1554, that is a year later Russian fishermen have found out two vessels and 68 corpses in one of northern bays. Confrontation traces was not. If to trust witnesses, dead persons have been overtaken by death during the employment: one behind a steering wheel, another was inclined over the logbook, etc. By order of Ivan the Terrible the goods from hold and personal things of crew have been delivered the tsar. Then it was found out that have found expedition of Uillobi. Why the command was lost, till now remains a riddle. The Dutch cartographer and seafarer Willem Barents which name names the sea, has undertaken three expeditions to area of New Land in 1594-1597. It has described novel to this place, has opened island Bear (archipelago Spitsbergen). During the third expedition the ship has been blocked by ices at east coast of New Land. It was necessary to remain on wintering. There has come polar day, but ice in a bay did not thaw. Then the command has made heroic attempt to reach continent on two boats. And attempt, strangely enough, has gone right. However a sick scurvy Barents till the end of travel has not lived. What forced to investigate new the Earth? Desire to increase territory? No, at that time the Arctic earths were not considered as the valuable. They are unsuitable for agriculture, and minerals here are difficult for finding out and very difficultly to extract. Will not believe, but seafarers searched for a way to China with which, as well as now, the European countries wanted to trade. In the absence of space companions and air photography, it was necessary to master new routes a trial and error method.

Christopher Columbus, for example, tried to find a way to India and has casually peddled old stuff, what and has not guessed. Columbus, as it is known, was the Spanish seafarer. Spaniards and Portugueses at that time supervised the most part of shipping routes, therefore other countries tried to find pass to South East Asia having rounded Eurasia from the North. It seemed that beyond New Land the seas, free from ice will open. Alas, the seas opened then have appeared even more severe, than Barentsevo and Karsky. In XVIIвеке one more seafarer searched roundabout for a way and has brought the big contribution to geography. In 1607 the English firm with the interesting name «Moscow trading company» (it had monopoly for trade with Russia), has employed captain Henry Gudzona (it Henry Hudson) for search of northern way to Asia. Travelling at random, Hudson has visited Greenland, on Spitsbergen and all in 1100 km from the North Pole. But the further way was blocked by ices. On other expeditions Hudson has visited both at New Land, and Northern Canada. As we see, he has managed to capture travel very wide region. Thus Hudson has made authentic enough card. Was lost presumably in 1611 during revolt by the ship. His name names passage.


Bering and the company

To Russian tsar Peter the Great sometimes attribute that it never did. Say, Peter Iпредполагал that America lies near to Asia or even is closed with it. Anyway, before the death it has directed to the Far East research expedition with the task to find a northwest part of America. It was headed by Dane Vitus Ionassen Bering serving in the Russian fleet. At that time in our country many foreigners worked. For very many, including for Bering, Russia became the second native land. If under Bering's biography to shoot a film, spectators will decide that the plot is thought up by script writers - so much all cannot occur to one person. Vitus Bering travelled to South East Asia, served on several fleet, participated in wars, ordered the ships, married the Russian woman, has opened a number of the earths unknown before, has put the settlement which has become by capital of the Kamchatka edge - a city Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskij. The huge help to Bering in its research expeditions was rendered by its subordinates and colleagues A.I.Chirikov and M.P.Shpanberg.

The first Kamchatka expedition reached from St.-Petersburg Ohotska through all Siberia two years. In 1728 on a boat «St. Gabriel» expedition has put to sea. Travellers have passed along coast to sea of Chukotsk through passage, without having found out the American continent, have opened the Cross gulf, Providence bay, gulf of Anadyr and island of St. Lavrentija. The next year Bering investigated coast of Asia, in particular, it has plotted the Kamchatka gulf. In many years of research of Bering which some doubted, the known English seafarer and geographer Jams Cook has confirmed. He also has suggested to name the mentioned passage between Asia and America Bering's name. In 1733 to Vitus Bering have charged to head the Second Kamchatka expedition. Only in 1740, in seven years of the preparation accompanied by numerous difficulties, expedition has put to sea on пакетботах «Sacred Peter» and «Sacred Pavel». The next year vessels have reached coast of America. Soon during a storm they have lost each other. In four months, autumn of 1741 during a storm the ship «Sacred Peter» has been cast ashore. During wintering a crew part including Bering, have died. The remained members of expedition from fragments have managed to collect a vessel on which have returned home in 1742. Some errors are connected with Bering's name. First, to it often order opening of Alaska. However the first on Alaska have visited geodesist M.S.Gvozdev and подштурман I.Fedorov on a boat «St. Gabriel» in 1732. It has occurred during the expedition headed by A.F.Shestakov and D.I.Pavlutsky. Besides there are assumptions that Russians visited America still in XVIIвеке. In foreign books the pioneer of Alaska name George Wilhelm Stellera, the German scientist who worked under the contract with the Russian Academy of Sciences. It was by Bering's ship and ostensibly the first has seen the earth. On memoirs of Stellera it had to convince Bering of necessity of disembarkation to coast. Has convinced also the first has entered on the new earth. The scientist has endured wintering together with Bering's command when the vessel has cast ashore a storm. It is known that the scientist clashed with seamen - apparently, they differently understood expedition problems.

Stellerhas brought the big contribution to studying of the nature and geography of Siberia, Kamchatka and Alaska. Then the scientist has endured the arrest connected with a denunciation of it. Has been released on freedom. Has died in Tyumen. It is interesting that Steller has described and has sketched the disappeared animal - a sea cow («steller's cow»). This sea mammal in length already to 10 m and weight to 4 tonns. Animals were exterminated by local hunters. However there are the attestations of eyewitnesses, seeing a similar animal in 70th years XX age. Perhaps, sea cows have still remained? It is one more riddle of Arctic regions. Now we will return to Bering and we will talk about the second error which is connected with it. The history is that. In 1991 the Russian expedition devoted to the 250 anniversary of visiting by Bering Ameriki, by the way, in it the Danish experts have entered also, has found its tomb. In Moscow criminalists on a skull reconstructed Bering's appearance. It has not coincided with a portrait. Then that on commemorative medals, on various monuments and on pictures in textbooks other person is represented. Who it? The Danish historians have come to a conclusion that it is Bering's uncle. It the full namesake of the researcher, therefore also there was an error. Such here a historical incident.


Northern sea way

The history of Arctic regions is full of the interesting facts. For example, not all know that Laptev sea initially bore a name of Nordenshelda. About it we will talk later, at first about Laptevyh. Cousins Dmitry and Hariton Laptevy investigated Arctic regions in the same years, as Bering. They participated in the Great northern expedition which have taken place in 1730th years. Problems at different groups of expedition differed: one participants went by sea, others on horses or the dog teams. Huge territories have been as a result investigated and mapped. There was a break - white stains on Russia maps it became essential less. Hariton Prokofevich Laptev has received the task to describe sea coast to the West from a mouth of the river of Lena. Its vessel was has jammed ices, therefore Tajmyr investigated on the dog teams, having broken group into three groups. One of them Simeon Ivanovich Cheljuskin ordered. It is a known surname. The most northern point of Eurasia is called cape Chelyuskin. Also this name meets in the island and peninsula name. In 1933 in honour of Cheljuskina named a steamship (have renamed a vessel "Lena"). It has soon got to the attention centre, it having appeared in a trouble. The rescue operation has received the world popularity. We name still some participants of Great northern expedition: Of this year Malygin, A.I.Skuratov, D.V.Sterlegov, D.L.Ovtsyn, F.A.Minin and others.

The second of Laptevyh - Dmitry Jakovlevich has received the task to describe district to the east from a mouth of Lena. Moving on courts on the sea and by boats on the rivers, and also on foot and on the dog teams Dmitry Laptev's groups have done huge work, having described, in particular, areas of Yakutia and Chukotka. Both Laptevy have returned from travel in good health and have continued service in fleet, ordering various courts. Now some words about Nordenshelde which name named the sea earlier. Nils Adolf Eric Nordensheld - the Swedish polar researcher. It has become famous for that has taken place for the first time Northern by sea on барке "Vega", truth, with one wintering. Expedition has taken place in 1878-1879. Fortunately, the name of the researcher nevertheless has remained on cards in names of the archipelago, several gulfs and other objects. As to Northern sea way it is the shortest way between the European part of Russia and the Far East. It is historically developed and very important for our country transport communications. Length of Northern sea way from Karsky gate to the Bay of Carrying out about 5600 km.

For comparison we will result some numbers. The way from St.-Petersburg to Vladivostok with use of this route makes more than 14 thousand in km. If to go through Mediterranean sea, Suez canal and Indian ocean, it will turn out over 23 thousand in km. If to float round Africa, will be even more. For the first time pass possibility by northern seas was predicted in 1525 by the Russian diplomat Dmitry Gerasims. It was based on swimming experience in XIIIвеке поморов - Russian inhabitants of the North. However for one navigation the way managed to be passed only in XXвеке, is more exact in 1932.

It was made by Otto Schmidt's expedition by an icebreaking steamship "Alexander Sibirjakov". Expedition of Nordenshelda on Northern sea way on барке "Vega" has been interfaced to great difficulties. At a given time about it began to worry. On a gain to the researcher from San Francisco (State of California) in 1879 has gone the American seafarer George Vashington De Long by the ship "Zhannetta" (USSJeannette). On Alaska De Long has learnt that with expedition of Nordenshelda everything is all right and has made decision to go to the North Pole. Soon the ship has got to an ice captivity. Two years (!) the command drifted together with the ship. During drift De Long has opened the islands named his name in the East Siberian Sea. After a while expedition managed to land on Novosibirsk islands. Having divided into three groups, seamen have tried to reach continent. One group has disappeared completely, from another two have reached coast only, and the third has arrived on coast with its full complement. In George Melvilla's 1882 rescue party has found bodies of seamen, including De Long. They have died of hunger. Until the last minute De Long kept a diary.

In 1884 at coast of Greenland have found things of seamen and a detail with "Zhannetty".


Nansen and "Fram"

Drift of the ship "Zhannetta" and vessel fragments has prompted idea to use a current for researches of Arctic regions. It has come to mind to the Norwegian polar researcher, the politician, and subsequently the winner of the Nobilevsky award of the world of Fritofu Nansenu By then it already was the known zoologist and the polar researcher. Under its management the group of adherents has made on skis the big expedition with the scientific purposes across Greenland. For an idea embodiment to go down stream Nansen on money of the Norwegian government and sponsor's means has constructed a special strong vessel "Fram" (in transfer with Norwegian - "forward").

It was going to freeze the ship in ices and to use as a depot for researches of Arctic regions. And this plan which some contemporaries subjected to criticism, with success has been realised. Leaving Norway, "Fram" has made the big travel along coast almost to Novosibirsk islands. Here Nansen has headed for the north and a vessel has strongly frozen in in ice. The crew from 13 persons remained to drift. Нансен hoped to pass close to the North Pole, but it does not happen. Then together with Jalmarom Johansenom he has left the ship and on the dog teams has gone to a pole. However the way was blocked by hummocks and sites of open water. Researchers have been compelled to return to Franz Josef land. Travellers have arrived there in half a year after have left the ship. And even more half a year wintered in a hut constructed of stones and skins. We will notice that, Nansen is closer than others has approached to a pole. In the summer 1896 two brave travellers have happened upon expedition of Englishman Frederika George Jackson.

Together with expedition they have returned on continent. Interesting, events if Nansen has not met Jackson as though developed? As to Jackson it was on expeditions not only in Arctic regions, but also in Africa. His name names one of islands of Franz Josef land. After a week after returning of Nansena to Norway there there has arrived the ship "Fram" which with ices drifted to Spitsbergen, and then went under the own steam. During travel the valuable scientific material has been collected. Нансен it is considered the founder of a new science - physical oceanography. In XX age it still will take part in travel across Arctic regions. And by the ship "Fram" other scientists will make two big expeditions on the North. Now the vessel is in museum specially constructed for it in a city of Oslo.


"Give ive Alaska land..."

In the history of mankind many the interesting facts. And one of them such: in spite of the fact that among the well-known researchers of Arctic regions there are many foreign surnames, most of all northern territories Russia has mastered. Process went not one century. Hunters and merchants gradually adjusted trade and economic communications with local population. In new territories there were public authorities, orthodox churches (at that time the church has not been separated from the state) were erected, military fortresses were under construction. The policy of governors of Russia consisted not in search of ways to China and India through Siberia, and in involving of new territories in national economy. By the way, at that time export of the furs extracted in the North and the East of Russia, brought in to the country very serious income. If to look at a card is evident, what big territory lying above the seventieth width, belongs to our country. And it not all earths mastered by Russians. Alaska has been sold to the United States Americas.

Well-known that then on Alaska, gold and oil field deposits have been found. Now this territory could bring in the quite good income. It would be useful and for defensive problems. However to return Alaska it is already impossible. It is possible to remember only words from a song which is executed by group "Lube", that Ekaterina was not right. Stop! At what here Catherine the Great? Alaska have sold in 1867, and Ekaterina IIумерла in 1796, that is approximately for seventy years earlier. The mistake left. Well, yes it is fine, to whom does not happen! Strangely enough, Alaska has been sold at Alexander II - the tsar who cared of empire expansion. The exact reasons of this act are not known till now. There are different versions. The version the first. At that time Russia had the big public debt, plus it was necessary to pay indemnification to landowners for peasants who have released in 1861 from the serfdom. Probably, at the expense of sale wanted to gain money. The version the second. Military conflicts have shown that empire suburbs are badly protected. Alaska could select. It was more favourable than it to sell, than to give it is for nothing. The version the third.

The group of persons lobbied the conclusion of the contract for the purpose of enrichment. Under some data, the check for reception of money in English bank has been written out on the private person. As a result the payment for Alaska has not got to the state treasury. Truth or not, historians should confirm it. There are also other versions. However the fact remains: the huge territory has been sold for 7,2 million dollars by gold - on 0,0474 dollars for hectare. That is, only on five cents for hectare!!! The American cent was at that time more expensive present, but all the same exaggeration will not tell that have bargained away. And nevertheless, sale of Alaska - an exception of a rule. Northern territories at all Russian governments were considered necessary for the country. The state spent the big means for their research and development.

The huge step to this direction has been made in XX age. But it is a theme for the separate story.


The XX century of openers-heroes

As all began

Interests of military men have made changes to the Russian plans of conquest of Arctic regions. Defeat of imperial fleet at Tsushima has forced both naval, and public circles of Russia to recognise strategic value of Northern sea way. The public opinion about it was brightest it is put into words Dmitry Ivanovicha Mendeleyev.

“If though the tenth share of that have lost at Tsushima, has been spent for pole achievement, our squadron, possibly, would pass to Vladivostok, passing and German (Northern) sea, and Tsushima”. In connection with a number of other similar statements in Sea department the extensive project of research of Northern sea way has been developed. On coast and islands of Arctic ocean it was supposed to construct sixteen hydrometeorological stations and, besides, to conduct within three years research of Northern sea way by three groups, from two courts everyone. However this extensive program has been cut strongly down further and for research of Northern sea way two vessels - icebreaking steamships "Tajmyr" and "Vaigach" have been sent only. Vessels have been constructed at the Neva ship-building factory specially for expedition. Their displacement was 1 200 т, cars - of 1 200 forces; at an economic course (8 knots) they on pure water could pass, without filling up fuel stocks, about 12 000 miles.

Case contours were icebreaking - at compression of ices of court squeezed out up. Vessels have been adapted for wintering in the Arctic conditions. For communication with each other and with coast they had radio stations with radius of action to 150 miles. At first it was supposed to begin inspection of Northern sea way with the West, but then it has been decided to study first of all a sea way from Bering strait to устьям Kolyma and Lena to adjust supply of these areas by sea and simultaneously to stop injurious barter of foreigners with the population of Chukotka and Northeast Siberia. Therefore the base of expedition had been selected Vladivostok where steamships have come a usual southern way - through tropics. By the chief of expedition the colonel of the case of naval navigators Ivan Semenovich Sergeev who had a wide experience in hydrographic works has been appointed. On August, 17th, 1910 steamships left Vladivostok, have come on a way in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskij and then into Providence bay where have filled up stocks from a steamship specially sent here for this purpose. Beyond cape Dezhnev vessels have turned on the West and already in 30 miles from Bering strait have met heavy ices. The snowfalls stirring the inventories have begun. On September, 21st have laid down on a back course and on October, 20th have returned to Vladivostok. Results of work of expedition were extremely insignificant, was not more true than them.

On July, 22nd, 1911 vessels have again put to sea and again, as well as one year ago, in Providence bay have filled up coal stocks. On August, 13th have passed Bering strait and have gone along Chukchi coast on the northwest. From cape Shelagsky "Vaigach" has executed a small oceanologic cut on the north. It was the first work of such Arctic regions in east sector. On August, 21st both vessels have sat down on the unknown person before a sandy shallow, but is safe from it have descended. On August, 23rd vessels have approached to cape Bear (at a mouth of Kolyma) - to a terminal point of the works planned for 1911. On the way back about cape of Billings of court were divided. “Tajmyr” continued the inventory of Chukchi coast to cape Dezhnev, and "Vaigach" has gone to Wrangel island. On a way "Vaigach" has passed through rather weak ices and has landed the small party which lifted Russian flag and has established navigating signs on island. Further, making the inventory from the sea, "Vaigach" has passed on the north along the western coast of Wrangel island, has rounded it from the north and, having passed between Wrangel islands and Gerald, has gone to the Koljuchinsky lip. So, Wrangel island has been bypassed for the first time from the north.

Further "Vaigach" has passed, making oceanologic works, from the Koljuchinsky lip to cape Hop on the American continent. From here it has gone to cape of the prince Welsh and, at last, to cape Dezhnev which has reached on September, 8th. Here at this time already there was "Tajmyr". Vessels have returned to Vladivostok on September, 15th, 1911. In 1912 of court have left Vladivostok on May, 31st. Their basic problem was continuation of the inventory of northern coast of Siberia to Lena. In view of early for swimming at Arctic ocean of time of "Tajmyr" was engaged at first in the inventory of some sites of coast of Kamchatka, and "Vaigach" with the same purpose has been sent to Commander Islands.

On July, 9th vessels have entered into sea of Chukotsk and in the East Siberian Sea have made the inventory of all Bear islands. Islands Krestovsky and Chetyrehstolbovoj named so F. P.Vrangelem, already had names. Other four - Andreeva, Pushkarev, Leonteva also Lysova-were named in honour of their first researchers of a XVIII-th century. Between Kolyma and Indigirka it was not possible to make the sea inventory of coast because of shoal. Further vessels have described islands Big and Small Ljahovsky, Vasilevsky, Semenovsky, Stolbovoj, Boiler and continent coast. "Vaigach" has come to a bay of Tiksi on August, 11th, and "Tajmyr" on August, 13th.

The bay of Tiksi was at that time absolutely deserted - at coast the vessel of expedition of Tollja "Dawn" aground lay. Expedition has executed the plan of 1912. However the condition of ices seemed favorable, therefore have decided to continue описные works on the West. On August, 15th vessels have left a bay of Tiksi and have gone to Taimyr peninsula. Next day at 75 ° . Have met heavy ices and on August, 23rd have decided to go to Vladivostok. In a court fog have dispersed almost on 100 miles. At first ice conditions at "Vaigach" which was to the north, seemed more favorable (extreme northern point of "Vaigach" 76°09 '.), but then has sharply worsened. The ships have met on 75°05 '. At a mouth of Lena of ices was not. The ships have rounded the Bear islands from the north, on September, 10th have passed Bering strait and on October, 10th have returned to Vladivostok.

On June, 26th, 1913 vessels have gone to new swimming and on July, 7th steels on an anchor in Providence bay. From here "Tajmyr" has brought hard ill chief of expedition I.S.Sergeeva to a mouth of Anadyr, whence Sergeys by a steamship has been delivered to Vladivostok. The new chief of expedition, the senior lieutenant Boris Andreevich Vilkitsky has ordered to "Vaigach" to describe southern coast of Wrangel island, and then to pass to the Bear islands to which should approach and "Tajmyr" going with a measurement along coast of Chukotka and coming on the way to Chaun bay. However "Vaigach" because of heavy ices could not approach to Wrangel island, and the ships have met at Krestovsky's island on August, 3rd.

From Krestovsky's island "Vaigach" has gone for the inventory to Yana mouth, and therefrom in a bay of Nordvik and to Transformation island. “Tajmyr” in the meantime intended to round from the north Novosibirsk islands.

On a way it has got on shoal from which has hardly got out.

On August, 7th the small islet named by name of the father of the chief of expedition, Andrey Ippolitovicha Vilkitsky's known hydrographer has been opened. Further"Tajmyr"has rounded Novosibirsk islands from the north, hoping to see“ the Earth Sannikova ”, and on August, 10th has approached to Transformation island which already had "Vaigach".

On island of Transformation expedition has found the big pig-iron four-final cross without any inscriptions and images. Probably that it is necessary to put this cross in communication with a find in 1940 survey vessel "North" on northern island Faddeja and in a gulf of Simsa of the rests ancient (about 1618) to Russian expedition. "Vaigach", having departed from Transformation island, has begun the inventory of bay of Maria Pronchishchevoj named so in honour of the participant of Great Northern expedition deeply pressing in coast. In this bay it has sat down on a bank. It was necessary to cause to the aid of "Tajmyr". Opisnye works of east coast of Taimyr peninsula were given hardly. On August, 19th have seen cape Cheljuskina, but to approach to it stirred ices. On August, 20th at first "Tajmyr", and then and "Vaigach" have approached to the unknown island named Small Tajmyrom. Continuing swimming on the north, vessels have seen many icebergs about which origin any guesses became. On August, 21st have noticed the mountainous unknown earth. For the inventory of its southern coast "Vaigach", for the inventory of east coast - "Tajmyr" has gone.

However to make the way far on the West to "Vaigach" ices have prevented. On August, 22nd on again open earth named now Northern Earth, disembarkation has been made and in solemn conditions Russian national flag has been lifted. On August, 23rd, having risen along east coast of Northern Earth, approximately to 81°07 ', vessels have turned back to island Small Tajmyr between whom and Northern Earth the small island named by name of the doctor of expedition of Leonid Mihajlovicha Starokadomsky, by the first noticed this island has been seen. Then the ships have again approached to not cracked припаю at cape Cheljuskina.

The pedestrian party sent on ice on cape, has put on it a wooden sign and was convinced that all passage named in honour of the chief of expedition by Vilkitski strait, is covered by impassable ices. On August, 31st vessels have headed for the east, in search of legendary “the Earth Sannikova” once again (only to the north) have crossed area to the north from Novosibirsk islands and on September, 5th have approached to Bennet's island. From this island were the rests of the collections left in 1902 geologist Tollem are taken. After the inventory of island of Bennet of court on September, 9th have gone further away on the east, have described on the way to Bering strait the Koljuchinsky lip, on September, 22nd have rounded cape Dezhnev and on November, 12th have returned to Vladivostok.

So, during this swimming, on August, 21st, 1913, Russian military seamen have made the largest geographical opening of first half of current century - they have opened Northern Earth which has appeared as it was found out subsequently, enormous archipelago. It was already said that Franz Josef land was foreseen P.A.Kropotkin. But here that Kropotkin already after opening of Franz Josef land has noted. “The Earth which we foresaw through a polar haze, has been open by Pajerom and Vajprehtom, and the archipelago which should be in the northeast from New Land (I in it is convinced even more, than then) so it is not found yet”. Opening of Northern Earth has confirmed also this remarkable prediction of Kropotkina. Fairly therefore that some scientists name all arch of polar islands lasting from Spitsbergen to cape Cheljuskina (island White and Victoria, Franz Josef land, Ushakov's islands and the Visa, Northern Earth), “the Barrier of Kropotkina”. These earths, really, block access to heavy Arctic ices in Barentsevo and Karsky exhausting. Here it is necessary to remind once again that Northern Earth expected even earlier Lomonosov.

It even has counted up its possible distance from northern extremity of New Land. 1914 year became year of new opening. Icebreaking steamships have again put to sea on purpose to pass all Northern sea way from the east on the West. This time on expedition there was a big innovation: aboard "Tajmyra" has been shipped a seaplane. Participants of expedition laid hopes on this plane, as on mighty means to make in inconvenient cases ice, investigation. However the technics of aircraft construction at that time was still low and at the first test in Providence bay the seaplane has failed. On July, 21st "Vaigach" has put to sea for the inventory of Chukchi coast, and "Tajmyr" has gone to port Nome (Alaska) for negotiations about the help to a command of the American vessel "Karluk" which have got over to Wrangel island after "Karluk" on December, 29th 1913г. Near to this island has been crushed by ices. Attempts of "Vaigach" and "Tajmyra" which have joined it to make the way through ices to Wrangel island have not crowned success. Vessels have turned in the Koljuchinsky lip, where also profits on August, 6th. Having filled up stocks of coal and fresh water from the approached steamship "Tobol", vessels again left on August, 8th to Wrangel island, make the way to it again could not and have turned on the West for performance of the primary goal. On August, 14th, near to the island opened in 1913 Vilkitsky, one more island named subsequently in honour of the participant of expedition of lieutenant Alexey Nikolaevicha Zhohova has been opened.

Then steamships in searches “the Earth Sannikova” have once again rounded Novosibirsk islands from the north. For the best survey of this area they went on considerable distance one from another. On September, 3rd icebreaking steamships have met at cape Cheljuskina and have made the inventory of southern coast of Northern Earth. To examine west costs of this archipelago because of impassable ices it was not possible. The inventory of southwest coast of island Small Tajmyr has been in passing made and co-ordinates of islands Small Tajmyr and Old Kadomsky are defined. On September, 5th vessels have been clamped by ices on cape Cheljuskina West side in distance of 16 miles one from another and a steel on wintering. Wintering was heavy. On "Tajmyre" there were 50 persons, on "Vaigach" - 48.

Under the certificate of the doctor Old Kadomsky, the food was monotonous and enough poor. Has as a result appeared, though and in weak degree, цынга. Besides coal stocks came to an end. Fortunately, in the beginning of September it was possible to communicate by radio with the vessel "Eklips" sent on searches of missing expeditions by Sedova, Brusilova and Rusanov and wintering at cape Vilda - in 275 km from "Tajmyra". Through "Eklips" the radio communication has been established and with the Main hydrographic management of Sea department. Hydrographic management for reduction of food crisis has ordered to send a part of a command of expedition to wintering of "Eklipsa", whence the known participant of expedition of Tollja, Nikifor Alekseevich Begichev, on resulted by it оленьих teams, delivered thirty nine participants of expedition to village Golchihu on Yenisei. Later for these people "Vaigach" has come and delivered them to Dickson island.

On July, 26th ices around wintering of icebreaking steamships ослабли also have given the chance to renew swimming. On August, 17th vessels have approached to Dickson island, and on September, 3rd, 1915, without having met on a way of ices, have come to Arkhangelsk. Swimmings of "Tajmyra" and "Vaigach" have crowned many opening and have in many respects appeared rather instructive. So, during these swimmings through swimming on Northern sea way from the east on the West for the first time has been made. The big sites of sea coast and many islands have been described and unknown persons are opened and put on an island card, before. In 1913 the largest geographical opening of XX century - the opening of Northern Earth which radically has changed our representation about a mode of the sea to the north from cape Cheljuskina has been made. In passing during these swimmings the set of measurements of sea depths has been executed and the richest materials on an ice, hydrometeorological and biological mode of the seas on a line of Northern sea way are collected. Sending for research of Arctic regions simultaneously two courts quite has justified itself. The ships repeatedly gained one another.

It was the first navigation of ships of icebreaking type in east Arctic regions. Vessels have been supplied by radio telegraph. However, the radius of action of ship radio stations was insignificant - all about 150 miles, but nevertheless vessels had continuous communication among themselves, and in the end of wintering have established a radio communication and with continent. It was the first application of radio in Arctic regions. At last, swimmings of "Tajmyra" and "Vaigach" have brought also direct practical advantage. Since 1911 so-called Kolyma flights have begun. Steamships began to bring annually from Vladivostok to Kolyma different cargoes for started to develop our northeast suburbs and to take out therefrom the local goods (furs and etc.) Simultaneously swimmings of "Tajmyra" and "Vaigach" have proved that reliable development of Northern sea way demands more powerful organisation and большего use of the advanced technics.


To see the earth Sannikova and to die …

The name of the Russian polar researcher and geologist Edward Vasilevicha Tollja can be found on a map. Fritof Nansen named in honour of the traveller a gulf on northwest coast of Taimyr peninsula. In the same place there is a river Tollievaja. A name of the researcher carry as northern cape on island Stolbovom, passage on island Boiler, the central ice dome of island of Bennett. He has lived only 44 years but as how many bright and epoch-making opening it has made! Was born in 1858. Has ended one of the oldest Russian universities - Jurevsky (Tartusky). The first travel has made on a scientific expedition across Mediterranean sea. In 1885-1886 it was assistant A.A.Bunge on the academic expedition, for "researches прибрежья the seas Ledovitogo in Eastern Siberia, mainly from Lena on Yana, Indigirka, Alazee and Kolyma and so forth, in particular the big islands which have received the name of New Siberia. In the summer 1886 Edward Toll within one and a half months has gone round on sledge on coast island Boiler and at perfect to a fair weather on August, 13th, 1886 saw together with the companion in the north" contours of four mountains which in the east incorporated to the low earth ". He has decided that before it the legendary Earth Sannikova. Henceforth it - his life purpose. Very few people knows, how there was a concept «the Earth Sannikova». And meanwhile for the first time the earth about which have then written the entertaining novel and have shot an excellent film, Boiler Yakut industrialist Jacob Sannikov has seen at the very beginning of a XIX-th century from northern coast of island.

And that without knowing, “has made round the small earth big undiscovered”. Has seen this earth and Matvej Matveevich Gedenshtrom sent in 1809-1810 for drawing up of a card of Novosibirsk islands. And the Yakut industrialist Jacob Sannikov has appeared most sharp-sightedly. She is quite real person, on a response of contemporaries, surprisingly courageous and inquisitive person. It was the hunter and the collector мамонтовой bones on Novosibirsk islands. Has opened four islands: Столбовой, Fadtseevsky, New Siberia and the Earth Bunge. And once from northern extremity of island Boiler he has clearly seen the unknown earth in a northwest direction - to it was versts 70. Later he saw two more earths. The second - in northern, and third - in northern-east direction. So in a scientific world there was an attractive version about the Earths of Savinkov waiting the opening.

The new earths in the sea were not a unique riddle of Novosibirsk islands. The first Cossacks who have reached archipelago and industrialists have been amazed: islands have appeared a huge cemetery of mammoths. On one verst of coast found to 10 pairs мамонтовых tusks. Here there were also bones of rhinoceroses, tigers, horses, wolves, saigas. Before a science there was a weight of questions: when mammoths lived here and why were lost? What cataclysms have caused this  destruction? Have found out on Novosibirsk islands and Wooden mountains. They are formed by trunks of a sequoia, a marsh cypress, a poplar, an alder. When and these trees grew in what conditions here? When and why there was a cardinal change of a climate?

Novosibirsk islands have been repeatedly investigated by the Russian expeditions. But it was not possible to open the earths Sannikova. In a scientific world even opinions that the Earth Sannikova is either mirages, or drifting ices, and even simply fiction that they are not present began to be expressed and there is nothing to search. But in 1881 the American, lieutenant George De-Long on a vessel "Zhannetta" around the third Earth Sannikova opens three islands and gives them female names: Benet, Zhannetta and Genrietta. Last two, truth, settled down too far, and hardly them could make out Sannikov and Gedenshtrom.

But here Bennett's island could be identified with one of the Earths Sannikova. It has revived belief of Russian geographers in a reality of "images" of Sannikova.« Now, - the scientific secretary of an imperial Russian geographical society A.V.Grigorev wrote, - when doubts in truthfulness of Sannikova are eliminated, thanks to opening of expedition of "Zhannetty", followed again put that dotted line on a corresponding place and to inscribe over it "the Earth Sannikova".

"For the polar expeditions interfaced to trips on rough and unreliable sea ices, - he has declared, - is required from traveller not one only scientific preparation, but also readiness to transfer any hardship and deprivations, even to be exposed to numerous dangers to life. Nowadays the Academy can consider itself happy that the persons quite corresponding to these conditions and ready in fidelity to interests of a science on any deprivations and difficulties of polar travel", at last, were found out. The mister Veselovsky spoke about the head of new Arctic expedition, the graduate of Tartusky university Alexander Aleksandroviche Bunge and the young scientist of the same university baron Edward Vasileviche Tolle. And in 1885 to the mysterious earths their expedition leaves. So the first acquaintance of Tollja to Arctic regions has taken place. And the next year - appointment to the Earth Sannikova. The academician of sciences has estimated the first polar expedition of Tollja, as "a true geographical feat". In seven years - in 1893 - Edward Tolja's second expedition has taken place.

This time it was its head. Excavation of remains of the mammoth who has been found out at coast of the East Siberian Sea was a main objective. The researcher considered that expedition could bring more various and important results and has achieved more large powers. Edward Vasilevich has visited island Boiler and again saw the Earth Sannikova. Having returned on continent, the polar explorer has passed on deer through a ridge of Haraulah to Lena and investigated its delta. Having passed a range Chekanovsky, they have passed on the West coast from Olenyoka to Anabaru, and, have tracked and have plotted low (to 315 metres) a range of Pronchishcheva (length of 180 kilometres), rising over the North Siberian lowland. They have executed also the first shooting of bottom Anabara (more than 400 km) and have specified position of the Anabarsky lip. Russian geographical society has highly appreciated results of travel of Edward Toll, having awarded with its big silver medal of N.M.Przhevalsky. The academy of Sciences has made the decision on payment to it of the monetary award. The name of the researcher became known; he participated in work of the International geological congress in Zurich, welcomed on behalf of the Society of seafarer Fritofa Nansena.

In Norway a baron studied glaciers of integumentary type, characteristic for Scandinavia and Sannikova dreamt of expedition to the Earth. He has been assured that the Earth Sannikova really exists. It indirectly proved to be true researches of American captain De-Long and Norwegian Nansena. "My conductor эвен Dzhergeli, - Edward Vasilevich in one of the articles, - seven times летовавший on islands (Novosibirsk) and seeing some years wrote this mysterious earth, on my question successively: whether" you Want to reach this distant purpose? "- has given me the following answer:" Time to come a foot and to die!" At meetings of Academy of Sciences and the Geographical society, during trips to Germany and to Norway, in all performances of Toll passionately tells about necessity of research of the Earth Sannikova. And, proved it very logically: "Really we will give last action field for opening of our North again to other people? After all one of виденных the earths Sannikovym is already open by Americans, De-Long. We, Russian, using experience of our ancestors, already on a geographical position it is the best than other nations to organise in a condition expeditions for opening of the archipelago lying in the north from our new-Siberian islands, and to execute them so that results were and are happy and fruitful!" It seems that for itself(himself) he already has solved all: plan of new expedition in details worked by Edward Tollem was ready. It was supported by polar authorities: Fritof Nansen, Nils Adolf Eric Nordensheld, admiral S.O.Makarov; academicians: F.B.Shmidt, F.N.Chernyshev, A.P.Karpinsky. The government has agreed and has allocated 60 thousand roubles for the organisation of Russian Polar expedition. It started on June, 21st, 1900: the Kronstadt port left a schooner "Dawn". "With all my heart I wish you all kind and fine on your long and important travel, - wrote these days Fritof Nansen, the long-term friendship connected with which E.V.Tollja. - … I do not have need to say to you that, except for your excellent wife and your family very few people with such interest will watch you, as I, the truly yours friend - Fritof Nansen … At parting we will tell, how Eskimos on east coast of Greenland:" always to float on free water from ice!" But the parting word has appeared mere words and not come true hopes. "Dawn" has wintered at the western coast Tajmyra and only the autumn of next year had appeared around Novosibirsk islands - there where necessary search for the desired Earth Sannikova.

On September, 10th at драгировании it has been established that a sea ground - sand. Travellers have seen in it an occasion to optimism. "Small depths, - Toll writes, - speak about affinity of the earth, but till now it it is not visible". The captain of "Dawn" Feodor Andreevich Matisen in the logbook writes this very day: "During a strong wind the horizon was clear enough, but any signs of the earth has not been noticed". "Dawn" has approached to Bennett's island. Emma's majestic, rocky cape has opened suddenly. "And coast so it is close, - writes Toll, - as if it is possible to get a hand … Now absolutely clearly that it was possible to pass by ten times the Earth Sannikova, without having noticed it". Emma's cape has precisely bewitched Tollja. The chief of expedition has a new plan: to winter at Bennett's island, and in the spring on ice to make a throw to the Earth Sannikova. But the yacht does not manage to make the way to island. "The purpose was so is close, and has again escaped", - disappointedly writes Toll. "Dawn", obedient to Edward Vasilevicha's ox, again goes to the Earth Sannikova. And again: "the Earth it is not visible anywhere … to Thought on the future oppress me!. Hopes are executed only in the modest sizes". On September, 16th, 1901 "Dawn" has risen on the second wintering. On a vessel coal stocks thawed, and it was clear that the next year again to search for the Earth Sannikova it is impossible. But Toll was as if is afflicted: he did not want to leave dream and to reconcile to defeat. With three companions on the dog teams, with easy kayaks he decides to go on drifting ices to Bennett's island. "Therefrom we cannot reach the Earth Sannikova, but, probably, we will manage to see it from island top, - the scientist writes down. - the road to the house lies only through Bennett's island!"

1902 year a baron meets in oppressive mood. Records in its diary, concerning by this time, sound tragically: "I have received 17 letters from the house. All night long and all next day I read them … Lovely, expensive letters, as sent by the sky благословление before departure for the north! In letters again it is a lot of expressions of confidence of my forces and in success of business, but all is vain so think - I do not have more forces! It is necessary to hope only that the general trust and love should support me and pour in new energy … That is made in my heart when I think about favourite, it I not in forces to transfer on a paper. Not within my power to invest with words the homesickness. As hardly tense strings are strained my nerves before this jump through ice-holes and mountains, through hummocks and the seas that in six months to return back home!" In the beginning of June, 1902 the small group has acted in road. Them was four: Edward Vasilevich Toll, the astronomer and магнитолог Fridrih Georgievich Zeeberg, industrialists-kajury Nikolay Djakonov and Vasily Gorokhov.

They left on sledge with the dog teams, dragging two байдары, to m. High New Siberia. Therefrom at first on an ice floe drifting in northern direction, and then on байдарах they have passed to Bennet's island for its research. Edward Vasilevich has given to the captain the following instruction: "... If in the summer of this year ice about Novosibirsk islands and between them and Bennet's island does not disappear at all and does not allow to float, thus, to" the Dawn "I suggest you to leave a vessel in this harbour and to return with all crew of a vessel a winter way on continent, following a known route from island Boiler on Ljahovsky islands. In that case you take with yourselves only all documents of expedition and the major tools, having left here other stock of a vessel and all collections. In the same case I will try to return before frosts to Novosibirsk islands, and then a winter way on continent. Anyway firmly I trust in the happy and safe termination of expedition...". In the summer, having released from an ice captivity, "Dawn" should approach to Bennett's island and remove people. But the vessel did not manage to come nearer to island. On September, 4th at "Dawn" remains only 9 tons of coal - for two days of a course. Trying to make the way to Bennett's island, the captain has broken the instruction of Tollja which ordered to withdraw the ship in a mouth of Lena after on it there will be 15 tons of coal. Yacht position became critical, and the captain has turned on the south. "Dawn" has come in deserted then a bay of Tiksi, to the southeast from delta of Lena. In some days the steamship "Lena" on which the scientific material collected for two years by expedition has been overloaded has approached to island. Boatswain Begichev and some rescuers on the whaleboat from yacht "Dawn" have taken to the open sea and Bennet's islands have headed for cape Emma. As considered during that time, Toll and its companions have been compelled to winter here and to rescue them not too difficultly. A baron should leave data on expedition on cape Emma. Without having reached cape, members of a rescue party have found two parking of its group. And on the cape documents at once have been found: in the heap of stones combined by a hand of the person, the bottle with three notes lay." On July, 21st have safely reached on байдарах. We will go today on east coast to the north. One party from us will try to be by August, 7th on this place.

On July, 25th, 1902, Bennet's island, cape Emma. Толль ". The second note has been entitled" For searching for us "and contained a detailed plan of island of Bennet. At last, the third note signed by Zeebergom, contained such text:" it has appeared To us more convenient to build the house on a place specified on this leaf. There there are documents. On October, 23rd, 1902 ". In the spring of next year search expedition has found left зимовье Tollja. Rescuers have found ashore two песцовых a trap and four boxes in which collected Tollem geological collections lay. Nearby there was a small small house. There the box in which Edward Vasilevicha's addressed addressed to the president of the Russian Academy of Sciences the summary record lay has been found. From this document followed: a baron has not lost belief in existence of the Earth Sannikova, however and has not managed to make out because of fogs it from Bennet's island. When foodstuffs stocks already came to an end, it together with companions have made decision to make the way on the south. In November, 1902 they have begun return transition on young ice to New Siberia and were missing. The way to four heroes was blocked by the big ice-hole which in the summer they have overcome by boats. It is possible to imagine a hell which people have entered: medley from snow, ice and water on which it is impossible to go on foot and it is impossible to float by a boat, cruel snowstorm and moving mountains of hummocks, awful сорокоградусные frosts, dense evaporations from water and darkness of polar night. Only the miracle could rescue them.

That has occurred to travellers, anybody does not know. In the report of Tollja found a rescue party, адресованномПрезиденту Academies of Sciences in St.-Petersburg, there was an island card, the description of glaciers, a geological structure, fauna. The Earth was mentioned by Sannikova also: "Flying birds were: an eagle flying with S on N, a falcon - with N on S and the geese, flown by flight with N on S. Owing to fogs, the earths, whence have arrived these birds as it was not visible, as well as during last navigation of the Earth to Sannikova". And, at last, final courageous lines: "we Will go today on the south. Provisions it is had for 14-20 days. All are healthy. Bennett's Pavel Keppena's lip of island. 26. Х / 8. ХI.1902 E.Toll". To Alexander Vasilevichu was only 44 years … On November, 22nd, 1904 at session of the Commission of the Russian Academy of Sciences the gathered have come to a conclusion that "it is necessary to consider all party members as victims". However the academy of Sciences has dispatched the special announcement in northern areas of Russia: "In view of unsuccessfulness to submit the help to the chief of Russian Polar expedition E.V.Tollju and to its companions: to astronomer F.G.Zeebergu and Yakuts to Vasily Gorokhov, by a nickname of Chichag, and Nikolay Djakonovu, by a nickname to Omuk which have left from island of Bennett … on November, 8th, 1902 in a direction to the south, but carried, apparently, ices, for search of all party or its part appoint the award at a rate of 5000 roubles, and for the first instructions of its doubtless traces - the award at a rate of 2500 roubles".

The declared awards have not been received … And what the Earth Sannikova? Where it? Scientists state three versions. Probably, Sannikov and other researchers saw mirages. Probably, it were huge icebergs. Polar pilots fixed floating bulks in the size 50 on 50 km. These ice islands break away from the Canadian glaciers, drift, sometimes on some years sit motionlessly aground, and then again start on a journey, surprising cartographers.

Probably, at last, and that the Earth Sannikova existed, but have disappeared. In Arctic regions very quickly there are destruction processes. For example, the island Semenovsky in 1823 had length almost 15 km, width of 4,6 km. And in 1948, that is in 125 years, it any more was not. The island Vasilevsky even earlier has disappeared. The destiny of islands Figurina, Merkurija and Diomida Is same. Sea currents, a surf, drifting ices and other natural factors very intensively conduct the destructive work.

In 1909 in Germany Edward Tollja's diaries have been published, in 1959 their transfer has been published in the USSR under the name "Swimming on yacht" Dawn ". In 1973 on Tajmyrsky peninsula three groups of polar scientifically-sports expedition "Komsomol truth" worked. One of groups over which Yury Ilich Hmelevsky supervised, conducted purposeful search of depot Tollja. "… here I ordered to bury a box with 48 banks of the tinned Russian cabbage soup, the soldered tin box about 6 kg of the crackers, the soldered tin box about 6 kg of the porridge, the soldered box containing about 1,6 kg to sugar, 4 kg of chocolate, 7 tiles and 1 кирпичник to tea. The hole … has been designated by a wooden cross". These are words Edward Vasilevich Tollja from September, 9th, 1900. For winter санных parties Toll has put a number of grocery warehouses. One, "the designated wooden cross" - has not used. Products under the description of Tollja have been put on depth almost one and a half metre. Edward Vasilevich has put the most interesting experience, which results modern scientists have estimated highly. The warehouse of products has been found. The cross has been tumbled down. And it has explained, why to the previous expeditions which searched for a treasure of Tollja on spring when the earth is wrapped up by snow, it was not possible to find this powerful log with the broken off crossbeam. On a column the inscription an inscription was hardly read: "the Dawn 1900". Members of expedition have brought the cubic tin box lifted from a permafrost in which there were 6 kg of oat-flakes to Moscow. Yellow, bright, most beautiful banks. On them interesting labels: "Food canned food for armies. A Russian cabbage soup with meat and кашею. A portion for a dinner. Weight 1 pound of 70 zolotniks. It is diluted with water quantity 2/3 those a tin in which is консерв, heats up to boiling and it is boiled no more than 10 minutes. Factory of food canned food of F.Aziber in S.Peterburge. The factory is based in 1862. Metal of a product of A.Zhako and To ° Moscow". These 48 банок canned meat - main толлевский a gift to descendants. In them as director ВНИИКОПа of that time A.F.Namestnikov then joked, all Russian food at once: both a Russian cabbage soup, and meat, and porridge. Fourteen jars remained on storage in a frozen ground, and 34 "little sisters" have got in термоизоляционный the container and have gone to Moscow. The conducted researches have shown that, despite "age" in 73 year, groats has perfectly remained. To a find on Tajmyre have shown a great interest пищевики and experts in long storage of products. To толлевскому to provisions expedition «КП» has added also the. On a bottom have at first established a box and a flask with almost identical maintenance on which it is written: "VNIIKOP 974-1980". Then nearby have put two more same sets, the marked 2000 and 2050 years. Each of sets includes 23 kinds of products which were made by the enterprises of the food-processing industry of the USSR. Concentrates of the first and second dishes, crackers, ship's biscuits, the groats which are not demanding cooking, canned food of various kinds in tins and aluminium tubas, chocolate, sugar, coffee, tea, salt, oat groats "oat-flakes" … On one box an inscription: "IMBP 1974-1980" (Institute of medical and biologic problems of Ministry of Health of the USSR). And here special value - container with canned food of Russian Polar expedition. At толлевских jars the future such: three will arrive to researchers in 1980, three - in 2000 and three - in 2050, for remained dredging term is not underlined. On "termless" storage two flasks with modern products are left also. Descendants will dispose of them at own discretion. The last in a hole have lowered a box with an inscription: "Polar expedition" Komsomol truth ". In it products which entered into our marching diets, and a memorandum telling about work of expedition in the north and about a find of a warehouse of E.V.Tollja are left. In new depot the maximum and minimum thermometers are established. By E.V.Tollja's example container with products have covered with tiled stones in the thickness of 2-5 centimetres. In 1974 research expedition of Food Industry Ministry of the USSR and "Komsomol truth" has been organised. Partially the products made in 1900, have been taken out, and partially left for the further storage to 1980, 2000, 2050. Continuing "the experiment" involuntarily begun by Tollem, the warehouse part has been left on termless storage.

Together with "historical finds" on depth of 1,5 metres have been put samples of the products made in 1974 Not so long ago Alexander Andreevich Grigoriev, the head of Federal agency on state reserves, has shared plans. It has appeared that Agentstvoobratilos to idea of practical use of the refrigerator under the name "permafrost". In some countries people very actively co-operate with the sun - the huge areas cover solar batteries, in some - comprehensively apply in an economy a strength of wind or force of inflow. Why of us in Russia not to place in the service natural gift - a permafrost?! Today another is obvious also. The contribution of baron Edward Tolja to a science is great. It has personally executed great volume of cartographical works. The first has given the geological description of Novosibirsk islands and has put forward the harmonous theory of geological history of archipelago. It proved that ocean level was in the past on 100 metres below present, the today's bottom of the seas was a land, wood borders passed in Siberia much more to the north. Climate change, sea approach have led to extinction of mammoths and other kinds of animals and plants. It has scientifically predicted existence of the earth which has been opened in 13 years and is named by Northern Earth. Only 50 kilometres separated it then from large opening, but it hastened to the Earth Sannikova! Its collections of remains of fossil animals total more than 2500 samples.

In one person it was the expert in zoology, botany, paleontology, mineralogy, geology to fossil ices, meteorology, cartography and other sciences. Its researches were full-scale and complex. But thus baron Edward Tol remained the patriot of Russia - the great power which interests appreciated above all and loved it more lives.


Island of a name of an admiral

Alexander Kolchak - a figure ambiguous and today popular, thanks to a film "Admiral". But if its military achievements are known enough, that in the Tajmyrsky gulf have christened one of islands in honour of Kolchaka, the wide range does not know. Meanwhile baron Edward Vasilevich Toll has counted the contribution to studying of the novel earths of a hydrographer, lieutenant A.V.Kolchak, its colleague-trailblazer significant and the most valuable. And therefore worthy увековечивания on a map. Alexander Vasilevich Kolchak was born on November, 4th, 1874, near St.-Petersburg, in a family of a nobleman - the officer of sea artillery. The sort Kolchakov was extensive enough, concerned to служилому to nobility of the Russian empire Under family legends, Kolchaki have received Russian nobility and the arms simultaneously with Russian citizenship in the beginning of reign of empress Elizabeth Petrovny, about 1745 Brothers of the father also were sea gunners: Peter - the captain of 1st rank, Alexander - the major general. In a choice of the future sea trade to young Alexander the family tradition - military service with «a sea bias» has affected. Alexander's mother - Olga Ilinichna, nee Posohova, - the noblewoman from the Kherson province which family has moved on a constant residence to Odessa.

Alexander Kolchaka's close relative on mother - Sergey Andreevich Posohov was a rear admiral, last Odessa mayor shot by the Soviet bodies in 1920. Brother Posohova Andrey - the infantry major general. So environment surrounding Alexander Kolchaka was exclusively military. And in a choice of the future trade the family tradition has affected. Alexander Kolchak has begun the school education in 6th Petersburg classical grammar school where has stayed to 3rd class, and since 1888 was trained in Sea military school. It has finished study by the second though could be and the first of graduates. Колчак has refused superiority in favour of the competitor-companion (D.Filippova) who has considered is more capable itself, and the commission has been compelled to be counted with its opinion.

After the termination of Sea military school capable, even the talented young man Alexander Kolchak carefully studying sciences and naval business as the best pupil, on fleet has been made on September, 15th, 1894 by the order in the first sea officer rank - the warrant officer. To it then was nineteen years! For excellent successes to it the award of an admiral of P.I.Rikorda with delivery of 300 roubles is awarded. The schoolmate on the case, its first biographer, rear admiral Michael Ivanovich Smirnov, remembered that time: «Kolchak... Gravity of thoughts and acts inspired to us, boys, deep respect for. We felt in it moral force which should obey, felt that it is that person whom it is necessary to follow implicitly. Any officer-tutor, any teacher of the case did not inspire us such sense of superiority, as naval cadet Kolchak. In it the future Leader» was visible. Other schoolmate, D.V.Nikitin, after years remembered that Kolchak «was as though the constant reference book for its less succeeding companions». During swimmings on cruisers "Rjurik" and "Cruiser" of Kolchak carried out not only front officer duties, oceanographic and hydrological works, but also strenuously was engaged in self-education, replenishment of special and general knowledge. Even during training in the Sea case, in it intention to participate on sea expeditions ripened, to pursue science oceanography. And in it it already then has taken the first serious steps. In 1899 it has published article «Supervision over superficial temperatures and relative densities of the sea water, made on cruisers« Rjurik "and" the Cruiser  "since May 1897 till March 1898 гг".

The commander of a cruiser G.F.Tsyvinsky later, becoming an admiral, wrote about Kolchake: «It was extraordinary capable and talented officer, possessed rare memory, knew perfectly three European languages, knew well лоции all seas, knew history almost all European fleet and sea battles». Companions on swimming noticed that it found time for studying of ancient Indian and Chinese philosophies. And to have possibility to read product of the Chinese thinkers in originals, he studied the Chinese language. After the arrival to Kronstadt, Kolchak has gone at once to vice-admiral Stepan Osipovichu Makarovu preparing for swimming on ice breaker "Ермак" in Arctic ocean. But on some circumstances an admiral could not comply its request, and "Ermak" has left without it. Колчак burnt with the desire to equip expedition for continuation of works at the Southern ocean Ledovitom, begun by the well-known seafarers and researchers F.F.Bellinsgauzenom and M.P.Lazarevym's admirals. However, it is not excluded that under the influence of Makarova the attention of Kolchaka has been reoriented on the North.

Upon termination of case Kolchak some months have stayed in Petrograd 7th naval crew, and in the spring of 1895 were given assignment to just floated cruiser of 1st rank of "Rjurik" as the assistant to the log chief. On this cruiser it has left in swimming to the Far East. In the end of 1896 "Cruiser" as the log chief has been translated on a clipper and throughout several years made swimmings in waters of Pacific ocean. Then in 1899 has returned to Kronstadt. In December, 1899 for the shown big abilities it has been made in lieutenants. Because of leaving on service in Imperial academy of Sciences of what it will be a question further, Kolchak will stay in this rank about eight years - till 1906. Колчак speaks about the desires, during a training time: «Still being in the case, and during swimming on the East, I was interested in oceanographic researches in polar region. My usual desire was to equip expedition for continuation of works at the Southern ocean Ledovitom, begun by our well-known researchers admirals with Bellinsgauzenom and Lazarevym». Thus, later, probably, under the influence of S. O.Makarova, the attention of Kolchaka has been reoriented on the North, by boundaries of the Russian empire.

Then, after returning from the Far East, in Petersburg Kolchak learns about preparing Academy of Sciences under the direction of baron Edward Tollja of Russian polar expedition. To offer the services of Academy Kolchak has not dared. However the destiny itself has found it. Проплавав some time in internal, Russian waters on a vessel «the Prince Pozharsky» that there was the worst variant of activity for it, Kolchak soon, in September, 1899, on эскадренном a battleship "Petropavlovsk" has gone again to the Far East. In Mediterranean sea, during ship parking in the Greek port Peraeus, Kolchak has absolutely unexpectedly received the offer from Academy, from baron Tollja, to take part in the mentioned expedition. It appears, A. V.Kolchaka's works have attracted attention of the baron needing three naval officers. Academician F. B.Schmidt has assisted also, to which Kolchak addressed earlier with the request to find out, whether it is impossible to get to expedition. The arrived offer of Kolchak has accepted immediately. The question on its time transfer from military service in the order of Academy of Sciences has been safely solved. From Greece through Odessa it has returned to Petersburg and in January, 1900 the Chief of expedition has suggested A. V.Kolchaku to supervise over hydrological works, but also, to be and the second магнитологом (assistant F. G.Zeberga). All the winter long and spring of last year of the nineteenth century Kolchak has used on preparation for expedition. It работав in the Pavlovsk magnetic observatory, studying the theory and making practical works on magnetism. Worked and in a Petrograd Main physical observatory. The purpose of Russian Polar Expedition - to conduct research of Novosibirsk islands, pass (the second time in the history of navigation) Northern By sea and search legendary «the Earth Sannikova».

The expedition equipped on a vessel "Dawn", passed since June 1900 till October, 1902 and has brought rather considerable results: Taimyr peninsula, Novosibirsk islands have been investigated. Vice-admiral Makarov so addressed trailblazers: “Going to searches of the unknown Earth Sannikova, let courageous researcher E. V.Toll knows that seamen quite sympathise with it, deeply appreciate its works and with all the heart wish full success and well-being on forthcoming expedition”. Edward Vasilevich Tolle later will write down in the diary: “Our hydrographer of Kolchak - the fine person, betrayed to interests of expedition”. Early in the morning on May, 29th, 1900 on Neva to quay of Vasilevsky island where the Academy of Sciences took place, the first Russian research vessel - a schooner "Dawn" has moored. Inhabitants of Petersburg - officials and students, naval cadets of the Sea case and слушательницы female Bestuzhevsky courses constantly crowded at a granite parapet, examining the beauty a schooner which the capital press firmly named the yacht. All the matter is that "Dawn" floated under the flag of Imperial Neva yacht-club. Value of Russian Polar Expedition was so great that to it has shown serious interest emperor Nikolay II.

On June, 11th, 1900 he has visited a vessel. After conversation with Tollem and officers about urgent needs of expedition the tsar has disposed all necessary to allocate with warehouses of the Sea ministry. It has allowed to accelerate farewell to Petersburg. In the warm sunny day on June, 21st Petersburgers in which number were grand duchess Olga who has become later by the queen of Greece, and the president of academy grand duke Konstantin, spent expedition to the polar seas. On July, 21st, 1900 expedition on specially equipped vessel got in Norway "Dawn", has moved on the Baltic, Northern and Norwegian seas to coast of Tajmyrsky peninsula where the first wintering was coming. To that A. V.Kolchak has stayed some time in Norway where "Dawn" was equipped. There he was engaged at the well-known polar researcher Fritofa Nansena. Having arrived to Christiania (nowadays Oslo - авт), Kolchak has gone at once to its university laboratory. The young officer corresponded for a long time already with the well-known Norwegian polar researcher and has now received from it the invitation to personal meeting to show Kolchaku the equipment for supervision in polar widths. Колчак acquainted Nansena with a route of the future expedition, and having reached Bennett's island, has asked it, whether it supposes existence somewhere a number of the unopened Earth Sannikova. Нансен has not excluded such possibility.

At farewell of Fritof Nansen has blest Kolchaka and asked to take care, having told that in Arctic regions to lose life easier, than to drop a coin from a pocket full of holes. During swimming and winterings on Tajmyre and on Novosibirsk islands Kolchak, as well as other members of expedition, tensely worked, conducted hydrographic, oceanographic works, floated on a boat, measured depths, observed of a condition of ices, did supervision over terrestrial magnetism. Made trips overland, investigating little-known places of coast of continent and islands. In October, 1900 he participated in trips of Tollja to fiord Gafnera for the purpose of the device there food depot (during this travel the true form of the Tajmyrsky lip has been defined). In April - May, 1901 two of them with Tollem travelled on Tajmyru (on an extent 500-verstnogo ways of Kolchak conducted routeing shooting). After Kolchak with companions and where and alone, for the first time has crossed island Boiler, having measured heights, has passed across the Earth Bunge from a mouth of the river of Balyktah to a southern part of island Faddeevsky, made trips on ice to the West and the north from island Belkovsky, has opened the island named a name of Strizheva. Under the certificate of one of participants of expedition, Kolchak at all with identical eagerness undertook any work. It willingly, with the big hobby did that, from its point of view, was necessary, caused in it interest. The commander of "Dawn" N.N.Kolomejtsev noticed that Kolchak «for any work which does not have the direct relation to a vessel, looks, how at inevitable harm, and not only does not wish to promote it, but even concerns it with any animosities». Колчаку, leaves, it was inherent was to certain "selectivity" in work. In a considered concrete case he in some measure confirmed it: «... I tested... Unpleasant feeling of a delay of a vessel with necessity to hurry up... We always somewhere hurried up hastily, frequently lines knows for what and what for». It did own work excellent.

The chief of expedition was extremely happy with it and in the report to the president of the Academy sent in January, 1901, informed: «Stations began always hydrological works which the lieutenant A. V.Kolchak managed. This scientific work was carried out by it with the big energy, despite difficulties to connect duties of the naval officer to activity of the scientist». Толль in general considered that Kolchak «not only the best officer, but it also любовно is betrayed the hydrology». The observant member of expedition zoologist A.A.Bjalynitskij-Birulja has left both flatter, and original personal impressions about Kolchake, as about young «the person, very widely-read», strict to subordinates, with the original relation to animals with which polar explorers had to work together. «The lieutenant-hydrographer, captious to sailors, with dogs was and is at all strict, and a wild animal and birds considered only through a cut of the winchester. On trips with Tollem he has fallen in love for the first time with barking and whining brotherhood and in the end even itself persuaded Tollja not to kill sick dogs, to put them on plank beds - perhaps will rest in bed. And in moustached walruses has directly fallen in love and on a front sight did not take». Let's remind that "Dawn" has come to a bay of Tiksi of the head of expedition and its brave companions. The academy of Sciences has decided to organise expedition on search of baron Tollja and its companions. Колчак has offered Academies the simple and cheap plan of expedition for searches of Tollja. Originally to Bennett's island planned to send ice breaker "Ермак", but this idea have refused. Practically there was no hope of success of swimming of a schooner "Dawn". колчак he has suggested to use the boat. The outlined enterprise was so risky, as well as the pedestrian campaign of baron Tollja. Despite constraint of Academy in means, the question on expedition has been solved positively and quickly enough. So there was an idea of carrying out of sanno-boat expedition. Its lieutenant Alexander Kolchak has headed. On January, 27th, 1903 Alexander Vasilevich has arrived in поморский the city of Mezen. At session of council of academy he has told: “I suggest to remove the whaling whaleboat from“ the Dawn ”, then on ice to deliver to island Boiler, therefrom on oars to go to Bennett's island. I understand that my offer of the same order, as adventure of baron Tollja, but other exit, on my belief, is not present”. Academician Tchernyshov recommended to type Rank-and-file members from мезенских поморов, time and again participating in its expeditions on Spitsbergen. Колчак the offer has accepted, and in office архангелогородского the governor the notice from мезенского исправника has arrived: “I Have honour to your excellency to inform that six persons who have been selected by the mister by the lieutenant, already have left. The chosen persons happened earlier on the different expeditions, all sober and good moral qualities, the list is applied on this”.

In February Kolchak and Matisen have left Petersburg, and on May, 18th all structure of a rescue party from 17 persons with 10 sledge has gathered in settlement Adzhergajdah, last settlement on continent. The whaleboat removed from "Dawn" have strengthened on two sledge harnessed by 30 dogs, and expedition has moved to Arctic regions. Ahead was more than 1000 kilometres of a way. There came the Arctic spring, and expedition moved only at night when froze. All had to be put to straps, helping dogs. Hummocks in places became absolutely insuperable, and it was necessary to cut through in them pass for a boat which weight exceeded half-tons. Having reached the sea and having waited its partial opening, Kolchak and its companions that under sails working as oars being put to straps and moving the whaleboat with heavy cargo through weights of ice, have reached in some weeks (on August, 4th) Bennett's earth. The chief of expedition to the full with all divided intense physical work. Quite often it was necessary to reach from the whaleboat coast on ice water by swimming. By an outcome of one of last twelve days of wearisome rowing in the extremely dangerous swimming of a fragile little craft in polar ocean waters the southern fair wind which has coincided with a meeting, appear, with very reliable big ice floe has blown. Have plunged on it. The wind grew stronger and drove it on the north, to the purpose. All were happy that «go into the state account», possibility to have a rest was presented. Have put tent, all were arranged in it, have laid down and have fallen asleep as killed.

It was not slept for some reason only to boatswain N.A.Begichevu. Only there was it began to fall asleep, as has felt something disturbing, forced it to jump for the night. «Just I began to fall asleep, - he remembered, - a strong flaw the wave has struck about an ice floe and has poured over all tent. I have jumped out and have seen that an ice floe at us have broken half-and-half on the whaleboat. Other half of ice floe has carried away, and the whaleboat slides in water. I began to awake all, and itself I am the whaleboat, I do not let it to fall in water. All have quickly jumped and have pulled out the whaleboat far away on ice. The ice floe became small, sazhens 70 in a square, but thick: from a water surface will be arshin ones and a half. The wind has amplified. From time to time the wave overflows far on an ice floe. Have decided to remain to wait weather. Tent and the whaleboat have dragged on the middle, and the whaleboat have adhered round tent. One end I took to myself in tent that if the ice floe will be broken still also by the whaleboat begins to plunge into water we will hear and we will quickly wake up. All have arranged and have fallen asleep as killed ». This event also ran into memory of Kolchaka, hardly was not entailed whaleboat loss, so also inevitable  destruction of all seven daredevils. He has woken up that it was shaken for a shoulder by the boatswain with exclamation:« Your nobleness, Alexander Vasilevich, rise, we sink ». Has quickly jumped, began to make orders and itself has joined in business of rescue of the whaleboat and new arrangement for the night. All has managed. Have landed on a small shallow.

On abrupt showered coast, on a slope to climb up for the night it was not meaningful. Have decided to stay the night on a small shallow, at the water. The next day in Emma's cape have found out an oar and in stones a bottle with notes, with the island plan, instructions of a site of a hut of Tollja. Have decided to go to it a direct way, on one-year-old sea ice. The chief of expedition of Kolchak has failed under broken up ice. Water was extraordinary cold, zero temperature. It could pull out, and hardly for he from temperature shock fainted. Dry clothes was not. Members of expedition have undressed him and have undressed. Have dressed him in the linen, have revived and have moved further. Steep slopes and descents have allowed it to be warmed up, come to the senses. But also this bathing, and other in some years of difficulty of polar travel on all life affected a state of health of Kolchaka, were not slow to remind of itself and the next months and years. He was tormented by arthritis attacks. Kolchak in reports then wrote not about a hardship, and about beauty of the north and scientific results of expedition on island. He wrote: «At last, for the second days on the cleared up foggy horizon black rocks of island of Bennett steeply going down in the sea, spotted with strips and stains of snow deposits appeared; gradually rising fog has opened to us all southern coast of island... Under coast the weight of the powerful ice floes towering over water to 20 - 25 foots floated; set кайр and чистиков with flocks плавунчиков lay around, with unusual indifference to the whaleboat... Here and there on ice floes lying seals» blackened. The low sun floated to the West and was already ready to disappear behind an ice dome. Ice floes behind a stern with solar gleams seemed greenish Venetian glass. The ceased wind inflated nevertheless a quadrangular sail of the whaleboat, approached it to a granite wall, the expedition purpose. Steels under the high coast extinguishing a wind. The sail has drooped.

«The wind has abated, we have furled sails, - wrote Kolchak, - and on oars began to make the way between ice floes. Without special difficulties we have approached under most steeply rising on some honeycombs of foots of a rock at which basis on depth 8-9 сажен through unusually transparent water the bottom covered with large fragments and boulders was seen. Nearby we have found in a mouth of a valley with the slopes covered with scatterings, narrow sandy coast where have landed, have unloaded and have pulled out on coast the whaleboat». On Bennett's earth have quickly enough found out traces of stay of baron Tollja and its companions. When left on island coast almost at once have found out a cover from an aluminium kettle. At coast inspection have come across a small izba in which have found boxes with the collected collections, a part of the forwarding equipment and a package addressed to the president of academy with the report. In a separate envelope there was a note marked “For searching for us”. It came to an end words: “we Will go today on the south. Provisions it is had for 14-20 days. All are healthy. A bar. Толль. Bennett's Pavel Keppena's lip of island. 26. Х.1902”.

The further inspection of island has confirmed that the party of a baron on it is not present. “That could force skilled polar explorers who were Toll and its companions, to leave island in polar night when the temperature goes down to 40 degrees when on ice porridge to what the sea between islands turns, it is impossible to move neither on dogs, nor on the boat, on foot?” - wondered Kolchak and the answer did not find. Alas, but doubts does not remain: the group was lost in a way, most likely, has sunk in yet completely frozen sea. On January, 2nd, 1904 the Academy of Sciences has received the telegramme: «the expedition Entrusted to me with the whaleboat and all cargoes has come on island Boiler to Mihajlovu I will become on twenty third of May... Having found documents of baron Tollja, I have returned on Mihajlov a camp on twenty seventh of August. From documents it is visible that baron Toll was on this island from July, twenty till October, twenty last year when has left with the party back on the south... On coast of island have not found any traces specifying in returning someone from people of party of baron Tollja.

By December, seventh my expedition, together with engineer Brusneva, have arrived in Cossack. All are healthy. Lieutenant Kolchak». Search of group of a baron E. of V.Tollja was the main task of expedition of Kolchaka. But at the same time she solved also collateral, but too important research problems. In particular, Kolchaku was possible to open and describe new geographical objects, to bring specifications in outlines of a coastal line, in characteristics льдообразования. Колчак has given names to a mountain - Barona Tollja, to peninsula - Tchernyshev, etc. The way back of Kolchaka was not less difficult, but seamen have stood all tests and on December, 7th have safely arrived in Cossack, and therefrom through Yakutia - to Irkutsk. So, search expedition passed from May, 5th till December, 7th, 1903. In its structure there were 17 persons on 12 sledge harnessed by 160 dogs. On ice dragged 36-pudovyj the whaleboat which has been removed from "Dawn". Then under a sail and on oars 500 km among drifting ices floated. The way to Bennett's island has occupied three months, and almost each metre of this way has been connected with risk for life. Constantly there were plentiful snowfalls, it was necessary to pull down often boats from banks, and "bathings" in ice water were inevitable. After the arrival to Irkutsk it has made «the preliminary report of the chief of expedition on the earth Bennett for rendering assistance to baron Tollju of lieutenant Kolchaka», dated on March, 9th, 1904 Soon it has been published. For this feat of Kolchak has received Sacred Vladimir's award of IV th degree, and later, in January, 1906, Russian Geographical Society has awarded with its higher award - the big gold Konstantinovsky medal. The Arctic expeditions have brought to the young officer glory and authority in the field of hydrography. On materials of expeditions it has let out the monography «Ices of the Karsky and Siberian seas», soon translated on other languages. By the way, on a card of northern coast of Russia from the White sea to Laptev sea, made by Kolchakom, the Soviet captains drove vessels already till 1934. The report on Russian polar expedition on Bennett Alexander Kolchak's island has made at session of the Imperial Russian geographical society on January, 10th, 1906. Here again the explanatory is necessary - why not at once Kolchak has reported about expedition. The feeling of a soldier's duty has called him on Russian-Japanese war. To Sit down a desk for processing of results of research works when in Port Arthur Russian ships burn and its messmates on the Sea case perish, it could not. Колчак has addressed on telegraph to the president of Academy of Sciences, to grand duke Konstantin Konstantinovichu with the request to deduct it owing to force majeure from Academy, to transfer in naval department and to go from Yakutsk directly to Port Arthur. The president has resolved a delay of granting of the report of expedition before the end of war, and Kolchak became urgently prepares for departure to Port Arthur. Has begun new тасячеверстный a way from Yakutsk to Port Arthur. Finishing it, he has noticed: “Three years already has passed since then as baron Toll has left Bennett's island, and the fact of its  destruction with all party any more is not subject to doubt, having brought one more addition to long record of the courageous people who have put the life in struggle against the nature of the Arctic area for the sake of scientific achievements”.

By then the list of merits of lieutenant Kolchaka was impressive: the officer-tihookeanets, the participant of defence of Port Arthur, 4th degree awarded the order Sacred Vladimir, added with swords and a bow to it, the Gold Georgievsky weapon, Sacred Stanislav's awards of 2nd degree with swords and Sacred Annas of 4th degree (it is handed over only during war), the lieutenant - the future head of white movement and the Supreme governor of Siberia. It again will rise on the captain's bridge to direct the ship to the Arctic open spaces. The third expedition which was setting as the purpose to pass Northern by sea from east on the West, was carried out in 1909 on two, just constructed on the Neva ship-building factory, experimental courts of icebreaking type - "Tajmyr" and "Vaigach". Alexander Kolchak was the commander of "Vaigach". These vessels have safely passed through Suez canal and three oceans to Vladivostok where Kolchak has unexpectedly received the telegramme with its appointment in the Sea Joint Staff. Further on the North expedition has left without it. Results of the polar expeditions executed on first two expeditions, it has generalised in printing work «Ices of the Karsky and Siberian seas». This research and is considered till now classical on an ocean Ledovitogo hydrology. In 1928 the American Geographical society has republished it in translation into English. Travel and a science could become the main field of Kolchaka, but - the regular officer and call of duty has called him on war. But it already another story altogether … And as a reminder that admiral Alexander Kolchak could be the brilliant scientist, the island carrying his name serves. It is desert island in the Tajmyrsky gulf of Kara sea near coast of Tajmyrsky peninsula to the north from peninsula of Pilots and a gulf of Zeeberga.

It is separated from continent by Rastorguev's passage. Length of island about 20 km, width to 6 km. The highest point - 50 m. The island has been opened in 1901 Russian Polar Expedition of Imperial Academy of Sciences. It is named in honour of Alexander Vasilevicha Kolchaka in 1908 on the cape with the same name named in 1901 the chief of Russian Polar Expedition by baron Tollem. In sign, 1937 year the island Kolchaka has been renamed into Rastorguev's island, under the name of the passage washing this island. Урядник the Yakut Cossack regiment Stepan Rastorguev also participated in expedition of Tollja to quality каюра. More than seventy years the name of Kolchaka was mentioned in articles, textbooks, books precisely with a brand of the ardent counter-revolutionary, the monarchist, the bloody dictator. On July, 15th, 2005 № 433 historical name has been restored by the governmental order of the Russian Federation. The initiative proceeded from public organisations and subsequently has been supported by the Duma of Tajmyrsky (Dolgano-Nenets) autonomous region. The summer of 2009 within the limits of works of Sea Arctic Complex Expedition the Russian scientific research institute of the Cultural and natural heritage of a name of D.S.Lihacheva establishes a memorial board in honour of the Russian military seaman and polar researcher Alexander Vasilevicha Kolchaka (1874-1920). The name of Kolchaka not only is returned island. In St.-Petersburg in a building of the Sea case in 2002 the memorable memorial board with an inscription has been opened: «the Sea case in 1894 was ended by admiral Kolchak Alexander Vasilyevich, the outstanding Russian polar researcher, the naval commander, the military leader. 1874-1920».

The monument to admiral A.V.Kolchaku is established in Irkutsk - a city where it under the decision of Irkutsk revolutionary-military committee in 4 o'clock in the morning has been shot and thrown on February, 7th, 1920 in an ice-hole of the river of Angara.


One of «Two captains»

One of these days in Moscow have summed up a unique polar campaign. Three months the Russian researchers have spent on the Earth Frantsa Joseph in search of traces of the expedition which have gone almost 100 years ago of polar explorer George Brusilova. Results have surpassed all expectations. Scientists have found out remains and personal things of the seaman which went on a schooner "Sacred Anna", that, whose history has laid down in a basis of the well-known novel of Veniamin Kaverin "Two captains". George Brusilov was a prototype of captain Tatarinov, by a recognition of the writer, also. That at Jury (George) of Brusilova service of Russia becomes business of all life, has been predetermined by family tradition. It grew in a circle of what acts and thoughts remained are immortalised in the history of the country. The family of Brusilovyh was rich and influential. Big brother Lev Alekseevich (George's father), - the actual organizer of the Sea Joint Staff and its first chief. The average brother - Alexey Alekseevich Brusilov - the talented and perspective military leader. Younger brother Boris Alekseevich - the valid councillor of state. After death of the big brother of the Lion its children Sergey, Tatyana and Yury (George) remained on care of relatives. The most capable and from them George who has decided to continue sea traditions of the father was disciplined. In 1897 has arrived in the Sea case which has with distinction ended in 1905 then at once has got to Vladivostok on theatre of sea military operations on Pacific ocean, on Mediterranean sea. It floated at first on a torpedo boat, and subsequently on a cruiser "Athlete". With 1907 on 1909 George Brusilov serves on torpedo boats of the Baltic fleet and in the same place falls ill with the North literally.

Young Jura Brusilov the person at all discipline carried away and romantic. About the North he can talk for hours. In the end of 1909 it passes in Hydrographic management and participates in hydrographic expedition of major general Sergeeva. In 1910-1911 floated in the Chukchi and East-Siberian seas on "Vaigach" as the assistant to the chief. In 1911 expedition has made a detailed card of sea of Chukotsk and a card of coast of Chukotka. Has taken part in researches of a mouth of the river of Kolyma. After returning from expedition of Sergeeva it starts to plan own expedition. No, records are not necessary to it. He does not aspire to a pole. And a craft of whales and a sea animal, perhaps, not end in itself. Not the prospect of fast enrichment suits the officer, the native of an aristocratic family. More likely thirst of adventures. Possibility of independent swimming - in waters малоисследованных, in polar Eldorado. On its plan, expedition should pass on Arctic ocean from Aleksandrovsk (Polar) to Vladivostok - round cape Cheljuskina, and to reach simultaneously the several purposes: to prove possible navigability of the Arctic waters and to spend their scientific researches. Besides a gain of Northeast pass expedition of Brusilova pursues also commercial objectives favourable to the state: the joint-stock company on extraction of a fur and sea animal in polar waters was established. That is polar explorers were going not only to conduct researches, but to try to earn at the expense of a craft. Organizers of expedition - lieutenants Brusilov and Andreys should become the basic co-owners. But while all it remains only plans. First of all, expedition needed the checked up both reliable vessel. And money for equipment. It is a lot of money. And here Boris Alekseevicha's wife - baroness Anna Nikolaevna Brusilova to the aid has come. It was the mistress of the big condition and has agreed to redeem a vessel and to finance the Arctic transition.

Money has been paid for a vessel, pleased Brusilov, seeing in a successful embodiment of the dream not only I howl the kind aunt, but also will divine, has given to the ship the new name: «Sacred Anna». The steam schooner had the strong standing rigging, capable to carry the big sails, a butt on a mainmast (from such since Columbus the sailor-observer shouted: «the Earth!», and nowadays зверобои in polar waters look out for extraction), the strong "ice" case, гарпунные guns on a nose. As the actual sponsor of expedition and the managing director of all project on behalf of baroness Anna Nikolaevny the uncle who has made for George Brusilova of a condition of the contract has acted. George Brusilov was appointed personally responsible before Anna Brusilovoj and the imperial authorities for the expedition, all craft and trade. It should give the regular report on all account sums, also has been obliged not to undertake any operations without granting and the coordination of preliminary estimates. Брусилов bore a private responsibility for safety of a vessel and all extraction. Uncle Boris Alekseevich has agreed to pay needs of expedition only in parts by granting of the estimate of all operational expenditure. The commercial component of the project looked so: from all incomes of the future fur concession the quarter was due to George. The rest divided among themselves the uncle with the aunt. Expedition departure was preceded by the advertising company. Press conferences follow one another, newspapers in delight. The most flatter responses are given by magazine "Russian navigation" and the newspaper "New time". However, most of all praise not the young capable captain, and its vessel "Sacred Anna": "the Schooner impresses is excellent favourably in sense of validity of all details of the case. A material first class, a covering threefold, oak. The underwater part is fitted листовою by copper".

"The ship первоклассно is adapted for resistance to pressure of ices, and in case of last extreme measure it can be thrown out only on an ice surface". Certainly all newspapers do not forget to mention heroic history of the skilled Arctic vessel participating still in search of the lord of Franklin. A schooner have constructed in due time for searches of the gone Englishman. It already happened time and again in polar waters, and years not so have made old her. Newspapers converged amicably that an expedition main objective - repetition for the first time under Russian flag of a route of Nordenshelda which has passed 34 years ago along the Siberian coast from Atlantic to Pacific ocean. On the way this expedition which is financed by some shareholders, will study присибирские and Far East waters in the trade relation. Hunting for walruses, seals, bears will justify a part of expenses... And suddenly before the departure the native uncle of the commander of a schooner, the Moscow landowner Boris Alekseevich Brusilov, one of the basic shareholders newly appeared зверобойной the companies, shows a condition - it puts additional means, but all other partners should step out. Except the nephew, certainly. Both the first assistant to the captain and the shareholder lieutenant N. S.Andreev leave expedition structure. Here the interesting plan comes to a head to Brusilovu. It plans to begin the Arctic transition at the big gathering of people from St.-Petersburg and to make transition from Petersburg to Aleksandrovsk (Polar) round Scandinavia with calling in the European ports. For this time "Sacred Anna" turns as though in круизное a vessel. For certain there will be many interested persons to sweep by the ship-hero of last Arctic campaigns and the future subjugator of the Northeast sea way. And it should bring in to Brusilovu the additional income and secure against willfulness of the uncle. And already from Arkhangelsk the polar and research stage of expedition to the Vladivostok will begin.

The same days persistent and fanatical lieutenant Sedov, with huge work collecting means, is going to leave Arkhangelsk on Pole conquest. At it an excellent command same as he, full gloomy fun and determination единомышлеников, but practically is not present money and not enough equipment. The geographical society does everything to prevent plans of the upstart and self-educated person Sedova, the son of the poor Azov fisherman. As George Brusilova's promising much bigger economic prestige and benefit of Russia the expedition just about will begin. Expedition is considered criminal, rich, of noble family. All predict to it success. Actually to Brusilovu it is even heavier, than Sedovu. All from clothes to coal is extracted with huge difficulties. Suppliers in Peter break the huge prices and though they do not deceive Brusilova as merchants in Arkhangelsk Sedova, but understand that the young rich aristocrat can pay втридорога, it the well-founded small. The emperor is interested in its expedition personally. Actually the uncle pays the necessary sums with huge delay, the vessel stands idle weeks, and the employed sailors do not receive weeks money. Брусилов should smile to reporters and consider each copeck. Therefore "for sportsmen" (that is rich tourists) Brusilov has thought up delivery of cabins not from easy life. Have employed even the professional footman-Latvian who was carrying out a role of the steward.

Yes only has not tritely put at Brusilova here again. Tourists of all three. More truly three tourists. Two young very rich ladies and Erminija Zhdanko - the twenty years' daughter of general Zhdanko, old friend of the family Brusilovyh. George Lvovich invited her once "to sweep to Arkhangelsk". Certainly free of charge. Nikolay Andreev gives last press conference directly in a wardroom of "Sacred Anna". Whisky with soda, cigars. It manages to convince the press that expedition carries not only commercial, but also patriotic character. Having conceded to public opinion pressing, officials, from a permission of emperor Nikolay The Second which adored fine gestures, on third have lowered the duty on the ship. Брусилову it became easier to breathe. It was possible to prepare for departure. At last, on August, 10th, 1912 "Sacred Anna" weighs anchor and under magnesian flashes of reporters and shouts "Ur!" Goes a course to Copenhagen. All counter vessels lift salutatory flags. Among them yacht "Стелла" on which to Russia there has arrived the guest of honour, the future president of France Poincare. In Copenhagen have landed the first passenger and should stay two hours, but two days have staid almost. On spot-check there was "North star" the yacht of House of Romanovs. The tsar has wished to see Brusilova to tell to that parting words. On memoirs, Brusilov has grievously shaken a head: "Here have done to noise to all Russia".

The meeting has passed as well as it is necessary, and in the evening of the same day Brusilov has sent the letter home: "Mum, is at me the request to you, whether you can check the uncle in the following. He is obliged to families my serving to pay monthly. I am afraid that it will exhaust them with hunger." On the following parking in Trondheim on a vessel the Norwegian mechanic who have told only has not returned that "good luck expeditions will not be, and risk big". And after all only yesterday in the first day of parking he took a command at home, treated and even has organised a campaign in wood behind mushrooms! However, with car mechanics have consulted also. It was necessary to hasten: in Kara sea just about there could be serious ice-rinks, and "Sacred Anna" is yet cunning and to Aleksandrovsk. But on the ship in Trondheim it was employed skilled гарпунёр Denisov. In Aleksandrovsk Sevastyanov and the ship's doctor should wait for Andreys, a hydrobroad gull. In the same place it was necessary to land both passengers. However, all has appeared differently. Nikolay Andreev, having learnt that to it from expedition is not due anything though all advertising of expedition was made by it, and he has achieved decrease in duties, simply has not arrived to port.

Together with it have refused to go a hydrobroad gull and the doctor. From officers on "Sacred Anna" there was captain Brusilov, navigator Albanov and two гарпунёра. And here all were amazed with Erminija Zhdanko. Since the childhood it went together with the father-general on garrisons and was not afraid of any work. Besides the twenty years' girl has finished courses of nurses and dreamt to study in medicine. Therefore she has declared that on coast will not descend, and remains on expedition as the ship's doctor. To object it has dared nobody, as during the first stage of swimming it repeatedly helped a command. And not only as the doctor. Брусилов wrote home: "the uncle has again detained Money, and I stand here almost the third day for nothing when time so is expensive! If not it (Erminija Zhdanko) I at all do not represent that I here would do with всею expedition and without copeck of money. It has received 200 roubles and has given them to me, than I and could hold on, all to pay and buy, not оскандалив myself and expedition". On September, 10th in Aleksandrovsk the command in which many had bad presentiments has hard and gloomy gone on a spree. Some have not returned aboard. But resolute and skilled navigator Valerjan Albanov доукомплектовал a command field men.

Erminija has received from the house kindly from the father and already felt the full member of crew. Gradually all have calmed down, that боле that except insignificant delays with supply foretold nothing troubles. Next day "Sacred Anna" left towards to two-year struggle against the Arctic ices which has ended with mysterious disappearance and  destruction. To last swimming together with captain Brusilovym have gone: navigator Valerian Albanov, doctor Erminija Zhdanko, гарпунёры V.Shlyonsky and M.Denisov, the Boatswain P.Potapov, steering Maxims, sailors of Konrad, Malbart, the Paraprince, Shpakovsky, Nilsen, Lunjaev, Ponomaryov, Baev, Shahnin, Humble persons, Anisimov, Bishops, machinists Freiberg and Gubanov, fireman Shabatura, cook Kalmykov and steward Regald.

From all command, running forward, we will notice, in live there were only two. For now … the Yacht runs forward. With mate duties Valerian Ivanovich Albanov perfectly consults. The command is cheerful: provisions much, it becomes fast a schooner on wintering somewhere at coast. The commander in expectation of arrival to Yugorski Shar - last point, whence it will be possible to send home mail, writes letters. «... Dear mummy. All while thank God. If you have seen us now, you would not learn us. All deck is loaded by boards, logs and kegs... I Hope that you will be quiet for me, it is necessary as to float only two weeks, and the winter is the very quiet time which is not threatening by any dangers...» But neither in two weeks, nor a month later the schooner in the east has not appeared. And if after two years coming back of swimming in high widths «Sacred Foka» George Sedova's expedition has not picked up two exhausted people on Franz Josef land, these letters of Brusilova from Yugorski Shar would be last data on destiny of "Sacred Anna» and. In the end of October, 1912 «Sacred Anna» has jammed ices in a southern part of Kara sea, at coast of Yamal. Drift on the north proceeded and within all 1913. In one and a half year of wanderings the schooner command stayed in a dejectedness.

The majority of seamen was ill трихинеллезом as meat of polar bears entered into a diet. The heavy illness, on three and a half a month chained Brusilova to a cot, has transformed it by February 1913 into the skeleton fitted by a skin. To the beginning of 1914 ices have taken out the ship in high widths, on southern border long-term, so-called паковых, ices. Frozen in in heavy, hummocky ices «Sacred Anna» drift has dragged on the West-southwest from a meridian of Franz Josef land to Greenland sea. Any hope to escape from an ice captivity at anybody does not remain. The third wintering Ahead was coming. Frightened not ices, not fear that the ship will crush, - people were convinced that terrible compression of frozen ocean is harmless for their vessel. A scarecrow another. Fuel came to an end, remains products ever less. And an animal in these widths did not meet. To an exit to Greenland sea from ices at such speed of drift remains not less year. Sign event has occurred in the spring of 1914 when the schooner was already to the north of Franz Josef land and туту: the part of crew led by Albanovym has left a vessel. In what the reason of such act? It is known that leaving of the navigator and with it of a crew part was made from the full consent of the commander, at mutual desire of that and another. But nevertheless about the reasons of the decision to leave a serviceable vessel, Valerian Ivanovich informs deafly, as though unwillingly - there were heavy mutual relations with the commander. «... From different trifles, inevitable at long joint life under trying conditions, - he writes in a diary, - the large barrier between us was created little by little...» Because of a lack of fresh products the scurvy has begun.

The fourth month was ill Brusilov, sometimes losing consciousness. Density with a view of economy of fuel and gloomy uncertainty of position have made people irritable, quick-tempered, with painful suspicion they began to concern to each other. Relations between Brusilovym and navigator Albanovym have especially sharply become aggravated. The infinite not deserved cavils, humiliating hails and insults to Albanova from party Brusilova. And, without having sustained, Albanov submits the official report with the request to release it from a post of the navigator and to release from the ship that one on drifting ice to leave on the nearest island of Franz Josef land to which was about 120 kilometres where as it was known, there were warehouses of products and an apartment house of the American expedition of Tsiglera. On terrible in the insidiousness to ice of ocean they understood hopelessness of a campaign of the single both. It was a sentence to death, but, blinded by anger, other exit they did not see. Brusilov, without reflecting, agrees. Albanov actively prepares for a campaign, builds sledge, a kayak, selects a two-month stock of products, draws a route card, carefully thinks over all details of a forthcoming campaign, knowing that life will be a prize. It is outwardly tightened, vigorous and on the business it is persevering, he feels drawn also sympathy of all crew - not casually with it half of expedition has agreed to go almost. Understanding that стольких people drift, Brusilov will allow remained to finish leaving, after short meditation releases, considering that after an exit of a vessel from drift on pure water of nine remained quite will suffice for a ship-handling in the sea. On April, 23rd, 1914 group Albanova after a farewell dinner in a wardroom left on the south to the far earth. In seven canvas kayaks, fixed on self-made sledge, 64 poods of the foodstuffs and camp equipment have been laid.

And sad farewell as if people felt was sad that more never will meet. Besides the latest moment of parting has been saddened by small and unworthy attack of Brusilova which have demanded from Albanova the receipt on... Made leaving sledge and kayaks! There is an assumption that it seemed to nervous, impressionable Brusilovu that Valerian Ivanovich besides is not indifferent to Erminii Aleksandrovne. And Albanov, correct, more sustained, than Brusilov, has left. Альбанов will live as early as five years. Together with sailor Konradom - so has strong connected their that transition on drifting ices - they will float on ледорезе "Canada", subsequently known "Litke". And summer of 1919 not on the sea - on a land, coming back on office business from Omsk to Krasnoyarsk, he will die of a belly typhus. Silent Konrad will die many years later. Also will carry away with itself secret of leaving of the navigator.

Eyewitnesses told that severe and closed, he reluctantly, with an internal pain, remembered ice одиссею. Avariciously, but warmly speaking about Albanove, Konrad flatly refused to inform something on Brusilove, about its relation to the navigator. After my careful question that connected their commander with Erminiej Zhdanko, he long was silent, and has then said in low tones: - All of us loved and idolised our doctor, but it gave nobody preferences. It was the strong woman, an idol of all crew. It was the true friend, rare kindness, mind and a step... And, having compressed hands as if hoarfrost подернутые whisky, has sharply added: - I Ask you, anything else do not ask! It is known that Konrad praised a schooner: - The ship was good. We repeatedly got to strong compression, however our "Annushku" as egg stuck out from ice shaft. No, it could not crush. Only the fire could destroy it. And we have left to give the chance to exist remained to an exit on pure water. Difficult three-monthly transition on drifting ices is described in a known diary of Albanova and is fairly equal to a feat. From eleven persons two have reached Franz Josef land. Альбанов delivered also an extract from the logbook «Sacred Anna». Materials about полуторагодовом vessel drift have allowed to reveal some laws of movement of ices in even absolutely not not studied Kara sea. There are some versions of  destruction «Sacred Anna». We will consider the cores. The version offered by D.Alekseevym and P.Novokshonovym, is rather interesting and convincing.

Albanov has left a vessel on April, 23rd, 1914. Co-ordinates of "Sacred Anna» were 83 degrees of 17 minutes of northern width and 60 degrees of east longitude. On a vessel there were 13 persons. The foodstuffs should suffice them, according to Albanova, till October, 1915. Durability of a vessel, its design almost exclude a variant that ices could crush «Sacred Anna». After all was already полуторагодовой drift experience. Grasped by ice, she has inevitably obeyed to laws of drift. And ice weights from the central Arctic pool, vicinities of Spitsbergen, Franz Josef land direct to Greenland sea and, forming the uniform stream, carried away by the East Greenland current, движутся to the south. About such law it was already known at the beginning of the century, and Brusilov, quite clearly, considered - the schooner will drift on the West, most likely, the course parallel нансеновскому to "Framu".

That is approximately along 83-84 degrees of northern width. And certainly, Brusilov expected clearing of a vessel not earlier, than there will be passed a meridian of Spitsbergen. If to admit that average speed of drift of ice in the western direction in this area of ocean was same as at "Frama" - two kilometres a day, the schooner has reached a meridian of Spitsbergen in November - December, 1914, during the most adverse time for the pedestrian travel on ice. And the remained command has not been prepared completely not for such movement.

The probable exit of a schooner from ice was postponed till warm time - summer of 1915 when the current together with ice will carry away it far on the south. The exit from an ice captivity has happened somewhere around 70th degree of northern width and not later than July, 1915. It follows from the analysis of position of a southern edge of ices in summertime, speed and a direction of their drift. Leaving an ice captivity, «Sacred Anna» has headed to the North Sea. Some researchers abandon to the idea that the schooner which has got to area of operations, the submarine could sink. After all 195 year is a heat of the First World War.

Since February, 1915 the waters washing England, are declared by Germany a zone of sea blockade. The German submarines start up any vessels which have appeared in sight of their periscopes on a bottom. The press of those months dazzles with messages on the lost courts. Only from July, 2 till July, 9th it is sunk nine steamships and eleven fishing courts, from July, 9 till July, 16th one steamship and five fishing courts. From July, 3 till July, 16th only one of the German submarines has sunk three Russian vessels - four-mast барк and two steamships. Perhaps, August has brought the most gloomy crop - 101 vessel was lost. … And «Sacred Anna» at all did not know that in the world the second year goes bloody war. Value of materials of expedition of Brusilova became clear at once.

They have allowed to systematise data on currents, to define borders of a continental shallow, to reveal Sacred Anna's underwater trench on border between Karsky and the seas Barentsevym. On the basis of supervision of Albanova during the pedestrian transition law of drift of ices in a southwest direction and Openly East Spitsbergen current is revealed. Group Albanova irrespective of Umberto Kani has found out мифичность the Earth Petermana and the Earth Oscar. For navigation Albanov had only the out-of-date card of Juliusa Pajera of 1874 resulted in the book of Nansena where these islands have been still designated. And after almost century the Russian researchers have found on the Earth Frantsa Joseph artefacts, - traces of expedition of Brusilova of 1912. Doubts into this account are not present! Searchers have found out also things from "Sacred Anna", and remains of one of polar explorers. - The command tried to get, as they say, into a skin of these people. And constantly we gathered and thought: and that we on their place would do, as would arrive and so on. It is everything, yes plus, probably, the luck, has allowed us to find people.

I consider that it at all a needle in a haystack - Arctic regions a little bit is more, - the head of search expedition Oleg Prodan marks. Participants of search expedition are convinced that the captain of "Sacred Anna" George Brusilov, the nephew of legendary general Alexey Brusilova, probably, is based upon a bottom of ocean Ledovitogo. On Sacred George's island have found remains someone from members of expedition. It, possibly, one of the pedestrian four Is there can be Regold, it can be Maxims, it can be Gubanov, it can be Humble persons. The name of this person while is known by one God, - Victor Zvjanin guesses managing branch of the Russian centre of a medicolegal investigation. To identify remains, are necessary or to find descendants of all four polar explorers - then it is possible to establish the person on DNA, or to find a skull of the victim. But expedition has searched all cape Nil. Without results. Why the polar explorer - too while a riddle was lost. - At everyone the version, but I consider that the person has fallen in a crack ice, or has covered with an avalanche. Here a problem not that it one has appeared, and that it had almost all property of all land group. That is things which left on the pedestrian group. The only thing that we have not found - a gun, - the participant of search expedition Evgenie Fershter speaks. Among finds - the cartridges marked on 1910 year, an English ship whistle that is logical: the vessel "Sacred Anna" was called as "Blenkarta" earlier and there was it British, - a knife, clothes fragments, a pocket watch of type "Breget".

One more find - a silver spoon with the initials "Items С" Such were only at sailor Pavel Smirennikova, just one of members of group. The Krugljashki-lenses of self-made points made the machinist of "Sacred Anna" Frejbergom from empty rum bottles, also are found out on island. All things and the found diaries are transferred in Institute of archeology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, that is that who professionally is able to open old secrets. … the First beacon on cape Dezhnev bore a name - «the Sign on Brusilova». Descendants have estimated its contribution to research of the Arctic widths and have immortalised his name on a card of ice continent. And let while we precisely do not know, as well as why «Sacred Anna» was lost, it is obvious that for many its destiny has predetermined a choice of those who having read the Kaverinsky novel, "has caught" the North. Once and for ever.


Source: <http://www.arcticuniverse.com/ru/arctic_history.html>



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