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Sunday, 14 April 2013 09:31

"Snow Dragon" and the new Arctic explorers

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A small news agency Xinhua in early August on the completion of the Chinese swimming icebreaker "Syuellun" ("Snow Dragon") on the Northern Sea Route is hardly attracted the attention of people professionally involved in Arctic exploration.

But in fact, this event has become a landmark. Chinese ship rounded the first almost all the northern coast of Russia.

Demonstration of the Chinese flag in the Arctic in recent years, has become a phenomenon already familiar. China's polar expedition every two years its studies in the North Pole. And the phrase "Chinese explorers" no longer seems strange.

In fact, the Chinese icebreaker voyage around the world (and "Syuellun" will finish its northern campaign coming in the Beaufort Sea in the Canadian Arctic and Alaska) said that Chinese polar ambitions are based on good technical base. It is known that in 2014 planned sea trials of another ship of this class. The new icebreaker will be stronger "Syuelluna", and its radius of action of about 20,000 miles.

By the way, showing interest in the Arctic is not just China. In recent years, the number of countries noted in this region, has increased markedly. Among them were such as India, Germany, Japan, Brazil, which do not belong to the circumpolar. One can assume that such an interest in the ice fields and deserted islands is not only scientific. According to some estimates, the area delineated above the Arctic Circle, has about a quarter of undiscovered hydrocarbons. Is there and deposits of other minerals, and in an amount sufficient for their industrial development. Therefore, attention to the Arctic in the coming years will only increase.

In these circumstances, countries with direct access to the seas of the Arctic Ocean, trying to somehow define their rights. In late July, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed the Federal Law "On Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation in the state regulation of commercial navigation in the waters of the Northern Sea Route." Recall that it took this route and China International Expedition. In such a name is not strange - consisting of 120 of its members on board the Chinese icebreaker were scientists from France, Japan, Denmark, Finland, South Korea and other countries. So, Russia reiterated its statutory right to control navigation in the area. I apologize for the long quote, but it accurately defines the boundaries of the Northern Sea Route. That's what goes with the July 28, 2012 Article 5 paragraph 1 1 Merchant Shipping Code of the Russian Federation: "Under the water area of the Northern Sea Route is understood a body of water adjacent to the northern coast of the Russian Federation, covering the internal waters, territorial sea, contiguous zone and exclusive economic zone of the Russian Federation, and bounded by lines maritime boundary with the United States and the parallel of Cape Dezhnev in the Bering Strait, west to the meridian of the Cape of Desire Novaya Zemlya archipelago, eastern coastline of Novaya Zemlya and western boundaries of the straits Matochkin, Kara Gate , Yugorsky. " Within these limits, the organization decides to seafaring Russian Northern Sea Route Administration, specially created for this purpose in the form of federal government institutions.

Strictly speaking, the history of commercial development of the area in the Arctic has its roots in the Soviet times. And almost before the beginning of the nineties the Northern Sea Route was closed to foreigners. Its formal opening did not cause too much excitement. Even last year the NSR transit was only 26 ships with a total tonnage of 835 tons. However, there is every reason to hope for a revival of navigation in the area. In any case, in the administration of the SMP plan later this year to increase the number of vessels that will be the Northern Sea Route, twice.

But these questions are only shipping. But the right to use the resources in the Arctic Sea defined the 1982 UN Convention. Limits of the exclusive economic zone of each of the polar countries end at a distance of 200 nautical miles from the coast. True, this distance can be extended for another 150 miles, if possible geological studies to prove that the country's continental shelf beyond the 200-mile limit. In this regard, reports that China is planning to follow the expedition in the high Arctic regions in the Canadian basin and the Mendeleev Ridge, and in the program of work of, among other things meant and collect samples of sediment, causing certain reflections.


Stanislaw Kozak




Source: http://www.tpp-inform.ru/global/2611.html

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