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Sunday, 14 April 2013 10:10

Mathisen Fyodor

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Known polar hydrographer, explorer Nordenskiöld Archipelago, New Siberian Islands, Tiksi Bay and Delta. Lena, Fyodor Mathisen born June 22 (May 20 st. Cent.) In 1872 in St. Petersburg. [17] In 1886, he enrolled at the Naval College, and graduated with honors and was awarded the prize. Admiral Nakhimov.

In the 1892-1894 years. Mathisen in the rank of Sub-Lieutenant sailed on the Baltic Sea. In January-April 1895, he graduated from the navigational class, after which he was appointed junior navigator officer cruiser "Rurik", which on October 29 of that year left Kronstadt to the Mediterranean Sea [9], and April 9, 1896 came to the Japanese port Nagasaki, where he joined the squadron in the Pacific Ocean [10, 11].

In the Pacific, Mathisen stayed until 1898, he visited many ports in Japan, Korea and China. In 1899, with the rank of Lieutenant FA appointed to the position of the ship's chief of transportation, "tank", which participates in the work of the Russian expedition to Svalbard degree. After the work of the expedition on the map for the first time appears the name Mathis. In his honor, was named Inglfild Nunatak Glacier on Svalbard in the coordinates 77 ° 40 '. Chap., 18 °. etc. [15]. After the first visit to the Arctic Ocean Mathisen captivated its harsh beauty and so immediately accepted the offer to participate in the Russian Polar Expedition of the Academy of Sciences under the direction of EV Toll. During the expedition, he was engaged in hydrographic, topographic, geodetic and cartographic works, and meteorological observations. During the second navigation Mathisen sailing yacht crew headed "Dawn."

During the first winter, "Dawn" off the coast of the Taimyr Peninsula in difficult winter conditions FA was the first to route survey Islands archipelago Nordenskiöld mapped the west coast of. Taimyr, a group of islands Vilkitskiy, including three that are open by himself (islands Strizheva, Grozny, and Corsair), discovered and described a hitherto unknown group of islands, called on-you Tsivolki (Islands Makarov icebreaker, Ermak, Vasilyeva, Schultz, Witte, Kovalevsky and Sava Lozhkina). Having regard FA Matisenom opening EV Toll second immortalized his name on the Taimyr Peninsula, calling the strait that separates the group of islands from Vilkitsky Islands Taimyr Nansen Strait Mathisen [5,12,14 ]. The New Siberian Islands FA Mathisen committed on the instructions EV Toll several exploratory excursions.

FA was a man of high general culture, well-read, a brilliant musician and also a jack of all trades. Under his leadership, built sauna and a snow house for meteorological observations, he charmed all playing the piano works by Mozart and Chopin or enjoy games on the air, skiing and shooting competitions. At the same time, "Mathisen was a great commander, confident and determined sailor" [1].

Three days prior to the departure of Toll. Bennett, June 2, 1902, he handed Matisenu specially designed "Instruction", and the next day - a sealed envelope, which was an order appointing him head of the expedition if "Dawn" will not be able to remove Toll and his comrades from the island or Death Toll itself. FA are well represented the greatest dangers to which was connected the last trip ended tragically EV Toll on about. Bennett, and from the start was an opponent of the event. But when the journey is finished yet, Mathis has taken all possible measures to rescue Toll and his companions. However, the limited amount of fuel on board nullified all efforts commander to conduct a "Dawn" through the ice to about. Bennett. After that FA Mathisen had led an expedition to bring it to the mainland and return to St. Petersburg [6, 16].
Sober assessment of the situation prevented the FA Matisenom expedition yacht "Dawn" to search for EV Toll. At the same time, he and Academician MA Rykachev offered to send for this purpose icebreaker "Ermak". But in government circles Mathisen offer no support and rescue party was held on the plan, the actual supply of NA Begichev [1, 2, 12].

In 1903, FA Matisenu was requested to "Dawn" trading firm A. Thunder in return for services rendered. FA Mathisen took this trip to explore Tiksi Bay. In svobodpoe time he started taking pictures and measurements of the bay and the mapping of input into it. In Tiksi Bay and on the river. Lena Mathisen has identified a number of astronomical points that enabled link the shooting with the works of H. Jurgens, I made within the period of the International Polar Year. Additionally, Fyodor was a detailed map of the bay and Tixi Autograph Peninsula, measure the height of mountains surrounding the bay, noted the presence in the valley. Sogo signs coal field [7, 12].

In 1907, the FA was appointed commander of the destroyer "perspicacious" and then a senior officer I rank cruiser "Diana." In the same year he was promoted to captain II rank.
After a swim in the "Dawn" Mathisen becoming one of the most active supporters and initiators of the question of the continuation and development of the work on the survey of the Siberian coast and the Northern Sea Route. Together with other famous polar explorer, he was actively involved in the work of the special commission of the Ministry of the Sea, created to study the continuation of hydrographic work in the Arctic Ocean on a large scale. The result of the work of this commission was to outfit the Arctic Ocean Hydrographic Expedition on icebreakers "Taimyr" and "Vaigach". FA was appointed supervising the construction of the icebreaker UT Chief of Naval Staff. Together with AI Vilkitskiy, I. Sergeyev, M. Shokalski, AA Bunge, FA participated in drafting the plan and program of the expedition to explore the sea route through the Arctic Ocean. He also brought on a voyage from St. Petersburg to the Far East one of the ships of the expedition, "Taimyr". Mathisen commanded "Taimyr" before coming to Port Said, where he passed the ship captain II rank A. Makalinskomu [12].

The main goal and the main concern of FA Mathisen in the last period of his life was the rationale for the construction of the Bay Tiksi seaport. Organized them Ust-Lensky Hydrographic Expedition 1920-1921. successfully completed work on the description of the delta of the Lena. As a result of surveying work was discovered by the navigable channel from the mouth of the Lena to the exit in the Laptev Sea in Bykov cape. Tiksi Bay was recognized as suitable for entering into it ships. His works Mathisen gave life Tiksi port, is now the sea gate of the Yakut Republic and the most important base for the Northern Sea Route [4, 8].

Lenski veteran boatman, Captain ship "Lena" NS Gorovatsky who happens to 1919-1921. provide expeditionary trips FA Mathisen and his staff in the lower reaches and delta of the Lena River, later recalled Fyodor: "He was a strong man with a beard felicitous, very piercing eyes. Always lively, restless, he is a type of scientist, thoughtful and attentive. Fyodor not averse to the common people, who kindly spoke to members of the team, a lot about its polar travel "[3].

Fyodor left a decent deep memory trace in the history of science and the development of the Arctic Yakutia. It was a beautiful soul man, the greatest patriot. FA Mathisen died December 9, 1921 by 50-year life in Irkutsk for the processing of materials of the first Soviet Ust-Lena hydrographic expedition, full of great hope for the realization of the ambitious economic plans for the development of the north and Bulun Soviet Arctic.


[1] Bolotnikov NY Nicephorus Begichev. Moscow, 1954.

[2] and t m e n b y p r PV life and scientific activity EV Toll. Moscow-Leningrad, 1960.

[3] N. Gorovatsky Pages of the Past. 60 Navigating on the Lena River. Yakutsk, 1968.

[4] AV Melnikov, in the lower reaches of the Lena. On the 50th anniversary of the first Soviet expedition to the mouth of the drainage of the Lena. Soc. Saha, 1970.

[5] Mathisen FA Overview sailing yachts Russian Polar Expedition "Dawn" in the navigation 1901 Math. Academy of Sciences, Vol XVI, № 5, 1902.

[6] F. A. Mathisen Report Lieutenant FA Mathisen of the voyage of the yacht "Dawn" in the navigation in 1902 and the return of its crew to Yakutsk. Math. Academy of Sciences, Vol XVIII, № 3, 1903.

[7] F. A. Mathisen Report to the commander of the yacht "Dawn" Lieutenant FA Mathisen August President of the Imperial Academy of Sciences. Math. Academy of Sciences, Vol XX, № 2, 1904.

[8] F. A. Mathisen expedition to the mouth of the Lena River in 1919. Irkutsk, 1921.

[9] Sea collection, part of. Math. about swimming nashihsudov abroad, № 1, 1896.

[10] Sea collection, part of. Math. the voyage of our vessels abroad, № 4, 1896.

[11] Sea collection, part of. Math. the voyage of our vessels abroad, № 1, 1897.

[12] DM problem Pinhenson Northern Sea Route in the age of capitalism. The history of the discovery and development of the Northern Sea Route, v. 2. L., 1962.

[13] EV Toll Sailing yacht "Dawn." M., 1959.

[14] Toll E. Die Russische Polarfahrt der «Sorja», 1900-1902. Berlin, 1909.

[15] The Place-names of Svalbard. Skrifter om Svalbard og Ishavet, № 80. Oslo, 1942.

[16] State Archives of the Irkutsk region, f. 293, on. 1, file 231, ll. 4 and 5. (Minutes of the general meeting of members of the East Siberian department of the Irkutsk Russian Geographical Society September 23, 1903 Post Commander of the yacht "Dawn" Lieutenant FA Mathisen: "The recent news of Baron Toll and cartographic works and ocean Russian Polar Expedition").

[17] The Central State Archive of the Russian Navy, f. 406, he said. 3, D. 1146, № 27. Track record FA Mathisen.

Source: http://www.gpavet.narod.ru/matisen.htm

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