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Sunday, 28 April 2013 14:51

Fridtjof Nansen

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Fridtjof Nansen (Norwegian Fridtjof Nansen, 1861-1930) - Norwegian polar explorer, scientist and zoologist, founder of a new science - physical oceanography, the Nobel Peace Prize for 1922.


Fridtjof Nansen was born October 10, 1861 near Christiania (now Oslo) in the estate Sture Fresne, owned by his father - a successful lawyer Baldur Nansen. Rhode Nansen - Danish origin, they settled in Norway since the XVII century. From his youth was an excellent skier, has repeatedly won the championships in Norway. After graduating from high school seriously choose between painting and science, and as a result went to university at the Department of Zoology. Already at age 20, he took part in the four-month voyage across the Arctic Ocean: in 1882 - went on board the ship tyulenepromyshlennoy of "Viking" in swimming in the ice (as a biological practice). It is a journey and was crucial for the direction of all his subsequent work. On his return from a voyage, he devoted himself to scientific pursuits. In 1883, after graduating from the University of Christiania, Fridtjof was appointed curator of zoology at the Museum of the City of Bergen. In the 1885-1886 years. worked at the University of Parma and the first in Europe, Marine Biological Station in Naples. In 1886 he was awarded the Great Gold Medal of the Royal Academy of Sciences for his research on the structure of the unit cell of the nervous tissue. Received his doctoral degree in a few months prior to departure to Greenland.


Greenland Expedition 1888

Nansen has set itself an extremely large and difficult problem - go through all the ice plateau of Greenland from the east to the west coast it. All work for the filling of the expedition he took over, the sponsor has provided scant funding from Denmark. Some of the money gave him a gold medal award: Nansen asked to give him a bronze duplicate, and the difference in the cost of equipment has gone on the expedition.

The expedition included:

  1. Fridtjof Nansen - the chief of the expedition.
  2. Otto Neumann Sverdrup - experienced polar captain, an expert on survival in the Arctic.
  3. Olaf Dietrichson - an experienced skier.
  4. Kristian Kristiansen Trana - severonorvezhsky farmer, an expert skier (farm of his parents work alongside their parents farm Sverdrup).
  5. Samuel Johannesen Balta - Sami nationality, reindeer and musher (originally intended as a traction deer). In 1902 he emigrated to the United States, lived in Alaska. With Nansen met in 1882 while sailing ship tyuleneboynom "Viking".
  6. Ole Nielsen Is - Sami nationality, reindeer and musher.

The expedition left the road May 5, 1888. Nansen, along with five friends across Scotland and Iceland got to the east coast of Greenland, and on July 17 there was a landing on the floating ice, about 20 km from the coast. Incredible efforts by a group of boats went through the ice floes and reached the coast on August 17. Further promotion was carried out on skis through unknown territory, draft power were the people themselves. Temperatures reach -40 ° C, woolen clothes poorly protected from the cold, and the diet was almost no fat (Sverdrup even asked Nansen issue in food ointment for skis). October 3, 1888 the expedition reached the west coast, having made the first crossing of the Greenland ice at a distance of about 660 km. During the whole journey Nansen and his companions were meteorological observations and collected scientific data.

Members of the expedition missed the last boat, which went home, but managed to pass the letters and telegrams. Six of the travelers returned to Norway in 1889 and was honorable throughout the nation. Nansen was appointed curator of zoology at the University of Christiania (in 1897 became a professor lecturing without obligation).

In 1890 and 1891. A book describing the Greenlandic expedition: Paa ski over Grønland («Skiing across Greenland," 2 vols., in 1928 severely curtailed by the author) and Eskimoliv («Eskimo Life"). These books reflect the commitment of the Nansen at the time the ideas of social Darwinism.


Expedition to "Frame" in 1893-1896.

Having dealt with the analysis of the results, Nansen began to prepare for an even more ambitious and grandiose expedition - to the North Pole.

Earlier observations had convinced him of the existence of a strong east-west flow, which was to be sent from Siberia to the North Pole and on to Greenland. This conclusion, in particular, is the fact that the remains were unsuccessful American expedition on the ship "Jeannette" under the command of the U.S. Navy Lieutenant George De Long. This expedition was wrecked in 1881, to the north-east of the New Siberian Islands, and items from it were found in the south-western coast of Greenland. Norwegian meteorologist, Professor G.Mon in 1884 published an article that confirmed speculation Nansen and became the basis for the expedition to the North Pole. $ 50 1988 - Cook Islands commemorative coin dedicated to Fridtjof Nansen

Deciding to test his theory, Nansen developed a draft of the vessel ("Fram"), strong enough to withstand the ice compression. The plan was to sail this ship in the North-East Passage to the New Siberian Islands, where it was supposed to vmerznut the ice. The team had to remain on board the ship while it drifted with the ice to the North Pole and the straits between Svalbard and Greenland.

The plan of the expedition came under fire in the UK (was reported at the meeting of the Royal Geographical Society in 1892), but was supported by the Norwegian Parliament who contributed in 1890 and 1893. subsidies for the construction of the vessel is 250 thousand euros, a prerequisite - the expedition will have a purely Norwegian national structure (Norway from 1814 to 1905. was part of Sweden). Other expenses of 200 thousand euros were covered national subscription and subsidies of private investors, including foreign ones: O. Dixon put electrical equipment, and E. Baron Toll built on the New Siberian Islands evacuation in the event of disaster databases, and gave Nansen 35 West Siberian huskies . One of the sponsors of the expedition was brewing company Ellefa Ringnes.

The expedition left Christiania of 24 June 1893, having a supply of provisions for five years and fuel for six months full speed. To participate in the expedition claimed more than 600 people, in the end the team included 13 people:

  1. Fridtjof Nansen - the chief of the expedition, a zoologist, a hydrologist and oceanographer.
  2. Otto Neumann Sverdrup - Commander of the "Fram", the acting head of the expedition from March 14, 1895
  3. Sigurd Scott-Hansen - Assistant to the Commander, Senior leytanant Norwegian Navy. In the expedition was the chief meteorologist, astronomer and expert on magnetic and gravity studies.
  4. Henrik Greve Blessing, the candidate of medicine - a doctor, a veterinarian and the botanist of the expedition.
  5. Theodore Claudius Jacobsen - navigator "Fram". Norwegian navigator and New Zealand navies.
  6. Anton Amundsen - senior engineer "Fram". Navy Machinist Norway.
  7. Adolf Ewell - quartermaster and cook expedition. Since 1879 served as navigator of the Norwegian Navy.
  8. Lars Peterssen - machinist and blacksmith second expedition. He served in the Norwegian Navy. Since 1895 performed the duties of cook and meteorologist.
  9. Frederik Hjalmar Johansen - fireman and meteorologist. Norwegian army lieutenant.
  10. Peder Leonard Hendriksen - sailor and Harpoon. Skipper Norwegian Navy, took part in an expedition in 1898-1902 Sverdrup's.
  11. Bernard Nurdan - fireman, electrician and sailor. He performed the duties of a meteorologist. Non-commissioned officer in the Norwegian Navy.
  12. Ivar Otto Irgens Mugstadt - sailor musher and watchmaker. Before the expedition changed many professions, including forester and supervisor of psychiatric hospitals.
  13. Bernt Bentsen - sailor. From 1890, he served the Arctic navigator of the fishing fleet in Norway. Became part of the expedition for half an hour before the departure of Tromso. Killed during an expedition to Spitsbergen in 1899.

"Fram" proceeded along the northern coast of Siberia. Before reaching the New Siberian Islands about 100 miles, Nansen changed course to a more northerly. By September 22, reaching 79 º N , "Fram" firmly vmerz in pack ice. Nansen and his team are ready to drift westwards towards Greenland.

Drift "Fram" was not so close to the pole, as Nansen had hoped. He decided to make an attempt to throw the pole, taking with him one of the strongest and most enduring members of the expedition, Hjalmar Johansen. March 14th, 1895 Nansen, accompanied by Johansen left the ship, which at that time was on the northern latitude of 84 ° 05 'and east longitude 101 ° 35'. Their attempt was unsuccessful. Conditions were more difficult than expected - they often blocked the way ice ridges or areas of open water, which created obstacles. Finally, reaching 86 º 14 'N, they decided to turn back, and went to Franz Josef Land. Nansen and Johansen did not reach the pole, but they came closer to him than all the travelers.

Three months later, Nansen and Johansen managed to reach Franz Josef Land, where they spent the winter in the architecture of their walrus skins and stones dug (28 September 1895 - 19 May 1896.). This wintering Nansen, during which he led the life of this Robinson, is a vivid example of how the courage and ability to adapt to the harsh conditions of the Arctic allow the person to come out a winner even in extremely difficult circumstances. The route Nansen in the Arctic

In the summer of 1896 Nansen unexpectedly met on Franz Joseph with the British expedition Jackson, whose vessel was «Windward» he returned on August 13 in Varde, after spending three years in the Arctic. Exactly a week later returned to Norway and the "Fram", brilliantly finished his historical drift. Nansen's theory proved to be true - the ship should the flow, the existence of which he had imagined. In addition, the expedition has collected valuable data on currents, winds and temperatures and surely proved that with the Eurasian side of the circumpolar region without drying, and deep, ice-covered ocean. Of particular importance journey "Fram" had for the young science of Oceanology. For Nansen it marked a significant turning point in his work. Oceanography was the main subject of his research. Nancy (left) and Johansen (right), June 17, 1896 at Cape Flora at the base of Jackson.

A few years Nansen was engaged in processing the results of the expedition and wrote several works, including the popular description of the expedition in two volumes Fram over Polhavet. Den norske polarfærd 1893-1896 (1897). This book was immediately translated into German, English and Russian languages, but appeared under different names: In Nacht und Eis: Die norwegische Polarexpedition 1893-96 («In the Night and Ice: Norwegian Polar Expedition 1893-1896.») Farthest North ( "Further north"). Pre-revolutionary Russian translations commonly called "In the Land of ice and night" (1898, 1902), and translations of Soviet times - "Fram" in the Polar Sea "(1940, 1956, republished. 2007).

Further activities

Without stopping to oceanographic research, Nansen entered public life. In 1906-1908 he was appointed Ambassador of Norway to the UK. At the end of the First World War was the representative of Norway to the United States, 1920-1922 League of Nations High Commissioner for Repatriation of Russian prisoners of war. In 1921, on behalf of the International Committee of the Red Cross has created a "Help Nansen" to save the starving Volga region. He was one of the few public figures of the West, who are loyal to the Bolshevik Russia and the young Soviet Union. In the following year he became High Commissioner for Refugees and the Nansen passport office established. In 1922 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, and in 1938 the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded the Nansen International Agency for Refugees in Geneva, founded in 1931.

Do not interrupt the Nansen and research: in 1900 an expedition to Spitsbergen, and in 1913 sailed on the ship "Correct" to the mouth of the Lena, and toured the Trans-Siberian railway. He planned an expedition to Antarctica to "Frame", but in 1905 due to illness of his wife dropped the idea, passing the ship Amundsen. In 1928, he participated in the preparation of the German expedition to the Arctic in an airship "Graf Zeppelin", but it took place after his death. The last years of his life suffering from cardio-vascular diseases. Nansen died in Lyusakere near Oslo May 13, 1930, playing with his granddaughter on the front porch of his estate. At his request, was cremated, and the ashes were scattered over the Oslo Fjord. Tombstone is in his estate "Pulhegda."

It is named after the annual Human Rights Prize of the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees - "Nansen Medal."

Personal life

Nansen was in 1890 married to Eva Sars (1868-1907), daughter of the famous zoologist Michael Zarza. It was consecrated Eve "Fram" in its descent to the water in 1892, it is dedicated to the description of the epigraph travel Nansen "The one who gave the name of the ship and had the courage to expect." In 1893 they had a daughter Liv, who first saw her father at the age of three years. During the absence of the Nansen, Eva made a music career, performing as a professional singer.

In honor of Eva and Liv Nansen named the islands in the Franz Josef (now discovered that this is one island, so he called on the maps Ebal). After the 1898 Nansen was at six more children.

Eva Nansen died in 1907, when Nansen was ambassador in London. He married a second time in 1919 at Sigrun Munthe. Daughter Liv left the father and mother of his memoirs.

Source: http://www.norge.ru/nansen_biografi/

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