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Sunday, 28 April 2013 14:27

Roald Amundsen

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Engelbert Gravning Roald Amundsen was born on July 16, 1872 in Norway, in the province of Østfold Borge. His father came from a family navigator. According to the memoirs of Amundsen, the idea of becoming a polar explorer visited it for the first time at the age of 15 when he became acquainted with the biography of the Canadian Arctic explorer John Franklin.

After graduating from high school in 1890, Roald entered the Medical Faculty of the University of Christiania, but after two courses of training and got interrupted by a sailor on a commercial sailing vessel. Two years later, Roald passed the exam for the long voyage navigator. In the years 1897-1899 Amundsen took part in the Belgian Antarctic expedition as a navigator of the vessel "Belgica". After returning from the expedition passed the exam again, becoming a sea captain. In 1900, Roald making an important purchase - he buys a fishing boat "Joa". The yacht was built in the ship's master Kurt Rozendalene Skaal and was initially used for catching herring.

Amundsen deliberately acquired a small boat, preparing for the future of the expedition: he did not bank on a busy team for which will require significant supplies of provisions, and a small detachment, which could itself earn their living by hunting and fishing. In 1903, the expedition set off from Greenland. The crew of the yacht "Joa" continued the journey on the seas and straits of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago for three years. In 1906, the expedition reached Alaska. During the voyage was on the map more than a hundred islands, made many valuable discoveries. Roald Amundsen was the first man past the Northwest sea passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific. However, this was only the beginning of an amazing biography of the Norwegian explorer. Antarctica, where Amundsen was in his youth, he drew his unexplored. Icebound continent harbored in their vast South Pole, where no man has gone before.

1910 was a turning point in the biography of Roald Amundsen. He led the expedition, the purpose of which was to be the conquest of the South Pole. Was chosen for the expedition sailing motor schooner "Fram", created by a shipbuilder Colin Archer - the strongest wooden ship in the world, has taken up this part in the Arctic expedition of Fridtjof Nansen, Otto Sverdrup and swimming to the Canadian Arctic archipelago. Equipment and preparatory work continued until the end of June 1910. It is noteworthy that among the members of the expedition was a Russian sailor and oceanographer Alexander S. Kuchin. July 7, 1910 the crew of "Fram" sailed. January 14, 1911 the ship reached Antarctica, entering the Bay of Whales. Roald Amundsen was held in the fierce competition with British expedition "Terra Nova", led by Robert Falcon Scott. In October 1911 Amundsen's team began advancing on dog sledding inland. December 14, 1911 at 15 pm Amundsen and his comrades reached the South Pole, beating by 33 days the team of Scott.

Having conquered the South Pole, Amundsen fired up a new idea. Now he rushes to the Arctic: in his plans - transpolar drift, swimming in the Arctic Ocean to the North Pole. For this purpose, according to the drawings, "Fram" Amundsen built schooner "Maude," so named in honor of the Queen of Norway - Maud of Wales (in her honor Amundsen christened and open them to the mountain in Antarctica).

In 1918-1920, for "Maude" was to sail the Northeast Passage (in the 1920 expedition, launched from Norway, has reached the Bering Strait), and from 1922 to 1925 continued to drift in the East Siberian Sea. North Pole, but Amundsen's expedition was not achieved. In 1926, Captain Amundsen led the first non-stop flight transarctic on the airship "Norge" on the route Svalbard - the North Pole - Alaska. On his return to Oslo Amundsen was expecting a reception, according to his own words, it was the happiest moment in his life. Roald Amundsen has plans to study cultures of the peoples of North America and northern Asia, were in his plans, and new expeditions.

But 1928 was the final in his biography. Italian Umberto Nobile expedition, one of the participants trip "Norway" in 1926, crashed in the Arctic Ocean. The crew of the airship "Italia", which traveled Nobile found on a drifting ice floe. Significant forces were sent to rescue expedition Nobile took part in the search and Roald Amundsen. June 18, 1928, he flew from Norway to the French plane "Latham", but was an air crash and died in the Barents Sea. Biography of Roald Amundsen - a vivid example of the heroic life.

From an early age, setting ambitious goals that seemed unattainable to others, he adamantly went ahead - and won, becoming a pioneer in the harsh Arctic sea ice or snowy expanses of Antarctica. Fridtjof Nansen famously said of his outstanding countryman: "He is forever occupy a special place in the history of geographical research ... It lived some kind of explosive power. On the misty horizon of the Norwegian people he came shining star. Many times it comes on bright flashes! Suddenly immediately went out, and we can not take our eyes off the empty space in the sky. " Amundsen named in honor of the sea, mountain and glacier in Antarctica, as well as a crater on the moon. His experience polar explorer Amundsen Raul has stated in his books, "My Life," "South Pole", "The ship" Maud ". "Willpower - the first and most important quality of a skilled investigator - claimed discoverer of the South Pole. - Prudence and caution are equally important: the foresight - to spot problems, and be careful - to carefully prepare for their meeting ... Victory awaits him who has everything in order, and it's called luck. "


Source: http://dostavka-portretov.ru/info-amundset.html

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