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Current state and prospects of development of ice shipbuilding and navigation

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The Arctic has unique natural and resource and infrastructure potential, and her development becomes reasonable a priority of policy of ensuring the national security realized by our state. Social and economic development of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation is carried out in two main directions: broad development of mineral and raw potential and development of the transport system including providing transit transportations across the Northern Sea Route.

 System development of resource capacity of the Arctic shelf and development transport in-frastruktura of SMP become for Russia the main components of a state policy exerting impact on a number of the decisions made at the state level. For example, in April and May, 2014. The government and the President of the Russian Federation have approved the acts defining on the near-term outlook priorities and the directions of development of this major region: A state program of the Russian Federation "Social and economic development of the Arctic zone for the period till 2020" (The resolution of the government of the Russian Federation of April 21, 2014 No. 366), the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation "About overland territories of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation" of May 2, 2014 No. 296. The program in fact defines one of the main mechanisms of realization is approved - ache the President of the Russian Federation in 2013.
"Strategy of development of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation and ensuring national security for the period till 2020". The decree is adopted for implementation of other state act defining policy of Russia in the region — "Bases of a state policy of the Russian Federation in the Arctic for the period till 2020 and further prospect". In this document as the major factors exerting impact on formation of a state policy in the Arctic, in particular, are declared:
"a) use of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation as strategic resource base of the Russian Federation providing the solution of problems of social and economic development of the country;
b) preservation of the Arctic as a zone of the world and cooperation".

The key purpose of the listed above acts is including increase of level of social and economic development of AZRF. Achievement of this purpose, in turn, demands performance of two main objectives: strengthenings of coordination of activity of public authorities at realization of a state policy in AZRF and the organization of monitoring of social economic development of the Arctic zone for elaboration of reasonable program actions. It is possible to distinguish from the priority actions accepted in state programs of development of the Arctic:

• development of specialized ice shipbuilding and navigation;
• development of port infrastructure;
• development and reconstruction of airport, road complexes, ensuring complex transport connection of the region;
• creation of universal system of emergency rescue centers and complexes;
• solution of environmental problems of development and development of the region, and also hydrometeorology.

In general the nation-wide priority directions of economic activity in the Arctic are:

• Ensuring effective operation of SMP, his transformation into the national transit highway. The solution of such complex task demands first of all construction of icebreaking fleet, fleet of transport courts of ice swimming, the new technical solutions allowing is profitable to transport transit freights on this route.
• Effective and ecologically safe development of sea fields of hydrocarbons on the sea Arctic shelf of Russia. The main technical problem which has to be solved in the next decades — production and delivery of the final product of processing of hydrocarbonic raw materials in the set points, terms and at competitive prices. This nation-wide task is adjoined by a problem of production of marine biological resources that is directly connected with ensuring food security of the Russian Federation.
Within the present article the problem of an assessment of a current state and prospects of development of world ice shipbuilding, construction of special constructions and navigation is generally considered. For example, according to forecasts for ensuring dynamic development of AZRF construction more than 150 courts of the Arctic swimming of various mission, 10 nuclear ice breakers, 30 ice platforms for extraction of hydrocarbons is planned within 30 years. Distinctive feature of perspective courts of the Arctic swimming are tendencies of growth of their displacement, power, speed of pass and icebreaking capability (ice thickness to 3 m). Construction of various courts of the Arctic swimming will require about 10 million tons cold-resistant welded steel.

Source: Arctic: ecology and economy No. 1 (17), 2015

Full version of article: http://arctica-ac.ru/docs/1%2817%29/018_030%20ARKTIKA.pdf

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