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Thursday, 17 March 2016 09:32

Who possesses the North Pole?

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Five countries argue concerning territories in Arctic regions. They hope to get access to the minerals which are deeply under ice.


In the north of our planet the thick ice layer covers open spaces of Arctic ocean. Its depth here constitutes about 4 thousand metres, and its abysses have absorbed already considerable quantity of people. This cold, white place, nevertheless, within many centuries in the magic image draws to itself dangers concealed there. Researchers and pioneers wanted to reach the first the most northern point of globe. But what occurred? The ships froze or ices squeezed them. Crewmen tried to move on foot, but have been forced to come back or froze. People flew by by the plane over the North Pole, but did not make landing. At last, one British (so in the text - a lane comment) has on foot reached there. And it has occurred less 50 years ago.

Today separate people any more do not arrange runnings to the North Pole - among themselves the separate states today compete. Recently Russia has collected all necessary data for that proof that the part of the Arctic ocean should be attached to it. Norway too has made it. And also Denmark - on behalf of Greenland which belongs to it. And the Canadian politicians declare: «the North Pole belongs to us!»

In Arctic regions, according to researchers, are located an oil field and natural gas, and the states are interested in them. After all the one who possesses these resources, can, possibly, at some instant to earn many money. Besides, it is always pleasant to possess territories. And while nobody knows that there still it will be possible to find!

But who makes the decision on the one who posesses the sea and its riches?

For this purpose it is necessary to address to history. Earlier oceans did not belong to anybody, and all could float on them by the ships to perform trade. Jurists spoke then about «the free sea». Only the part of water area located from coast of the state not further, than can fly by a gun kernel, could belong to it. This distance equaled approximately to three n miles or five and a half to kilometres. A similar rule named then a rule of a gun shot.

Today the situation return - the sea any more does not belong to anybody, but it belongs to all. Those parts of ocean for which no state can apply, are «property of mankind» - so to say, the property of all people living on the Earth. Approximately 30 years ago the United Nations, the organisation representing almost all countries on a planet, have passed the special law on the seas.

All it while sounds well, however the United Nations also have made decision that the countries have possibility to apply on considerably big sites exhausting, than earlier: the part of water area removed from coast on distance to 200 miles (about 370 kilometres), belongs to them without additional check. But if the state wants to receive more - to 350 n miles (650 kilometres) then it should prove that this region, really, belongs to it.

Here again complexities as there is a question also begin: and who it solves?

You can present it to yourselves as struggle of researchers. The states direct there the best research ships to conduct studying of a sea-bottom from the geological point of view and to receive answers to following questions: How this bottom is arranged? How old is he? What structure of its surface? Whether there are deep hollows or high mountains? Scientists should prove that the sea-bottom and its basis represent not that other, as natural continuation of a continental part of the state. If you, for example, have found out a deep hollow in 250 miles from your coast it will be difficult to prove that your continental part is stretched so far. But if the states consider that they have collected enough proofs then they constitute the request and direct it to the special commission of the Incorporated Nations.

Russia, Denmark and Norway have directed the requests concerning certain parts of Arctic regions. Canada still works over the request. Only the United States wait results because they definitively yet have not signed the United Nations Convention on a marine law. Now some time it is necessary to wait for decision-making as experts of the United Nations should check up all data presented to it at first.

For now these states already start to extract minerals on the deposits located on distance no more of 200 miles from coast. As they anyway belong to them. So, for example, the government of the United States has permitted companies Shell to be engaged recently in oil searches in the Arctic area at coast of Alaska. It is necessary to hope only that during similar chisel works there will be no accident. In that case the North Pole if it sometime also belongs to any one country, possibly, already will be not the most white stain on a planet, and the most black.

Arctic regions in danger. The most northern parts of Europe, Asia and the North America enter into a railroad train of Arctic regions. In the centre of this region there is an Arctic ocean. In the winter it is covered by a thick crust of ice. In the summer this ice cap here already for many years thaws more and more, and its sizes decrease. The further ice recedes, the it is easier to search for minerals at an ocean floor. But their extraction is rather dangerous: If there will be an accident then because of ice and a cold in Arctic regions it will be difficult to organise the help.

Judit Sholter


Source: http://inosmi.ru/world/20150919/230355097.html

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